BI13_Ch12 Lecture Notes

BI13_Ch12 Lecture Notes - ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 LECTURE...

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 12 – The Central Nervous System 1. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN a. Overview i. The Brain 1) Brain weighs approximately 3 pounds. 2) Four main regions: cerebral hemispheres; diencephalons; brain stem; and cerebellum. ii. Simplified Structure of the CNS 1) Central cavity. 2) Gray matter core. 3) Outer white matter;. QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. File: 4a4fef328b90415a5a1b241ca85f52ba28095c63.doc Updated: 8/14/09
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Chapter 12 – The Central Nervous System Page 2 iii. Ventricles: Holes in Your Head 1) Continuous fluid-filled (CSF) cavities at the center of the CNS. 2) Lateral Ventricles – in the cerebral hemispheres. 3) Third Ventricle – in the diencephalons. 4) Fourth Ventricle – in the brain stem; continuous with central canal of spinal cord. QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. b. Cerebral Hemispheres i. Overview 1) Outer superior part of the brain (83% of total brain). ii. Structures of Cerebral Hemispheres 1) Cerebral Cortex – outermost layer of gray matter; information processing. 2) Cerebral White Matter – axons; communication between hemispheres. 3) Basal Nuclei – regulate cortex. iii. Folding Increases Cortex Surface Area File: 4a4fef328b90415a5a1b241ca85f52ba28095c63.doc Updated: 8/14/09
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Chapter 12 – The Central Nervous System Page 3 1) Gyrus – elevated ridge of tissue. 2) Sulcus – shallow groove; divide hemispheres into lobes. 3) Fissure – deeper groove; separates large regions of the brain. iv. Five Lobes Separated By Sulci 1) Superficial Lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. 2) Deep lobe: insula. 3) Separating Sulci a) Central Sulcus – separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. b) Lateral Sulcus – outlines the temporal lobe. v. Cerebral Cortex 1) Outermost Layer a) Mostly gray matter. b) Contains billions of interneurons. c) Contains our consciousness and personality. d) Controls many of our voluntary responses. 2) Functional Areas of Cerebral Cortex a) Three major types of functional areas (all are for processing, not input or putput): i) Motor areas. File: 4a4fef328b90415a5a1b241ca85f52ba28095c63.doc Updated: 8/14/09
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Chapter 12 – The Central Nervous System Page 4 ii) Sensory areas. iii) Association areas. 3) Control of Cerebral Cortex Functions a) Contralateral – each hemisphere controls functions of the opposite side of the body (common). b) Ipsilateral – hemisphere controls functions on same side of body (rare). 4) Lateralization: Left and Right Hemispheres Specialize a) Inmost aright-handed persons, left side controls language, math, and logic; right side controls visual, artistic, and creative. 5)
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BI13_Ch12 Lecture Notes - ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 LECTURE...

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