BI13_Ch12 PP Slides

BI13_Ch12 PP Slides - Topics The Central Nervous System...

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The Central Nervous System Chapter 12 Topics ! Structure and Function of the Brain ! Functional Brain Systems ! Protection of the brain ! Structure and function of the spinal cord Structure and Function of the Brain Overview Cerebral Hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum The Brain ! Control center of the body ! Composed of very soft tissue ! Weighs about 3 lbs ! Four main regions ! Cerebral hemispheres ! Diencephalon ! Brain stem ! Cerebellum
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Simplified Structure of The CNS ! Central cavity ! Grey matter core ! White external white matter ! In the brain ! Additional layer of grey matter Ventricles: Holes in Your Head ! Continuous fluid filled cavities at the center of the CNS ! Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ! The lateral ventricles ! In the cerebral hemispheres ! Third ventricle ! In the diencephalon ! The fourth ventricle ! In the brainstem ! Continuous with central canal of spinal cord Structure and Function of the Brain Overview Cerebral Hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum Overview of Cerebral Hemispheres ! Outer superior part of the brain ! 83% of total brain ! Two equivalent sides ! Right and left hemispheres
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Structures of Cerebral Hemispheres ! Cerebral cortex ! Outer most layer of grey matter ! Information processing ! Cerebral white matter ! Axons ! Communication between hemispheres ! Basal nuclei ! Regulate cortex Folding Increases Cortex Surface Area ! Gyrus ! Elevated ridge of tissue ! Sulcus ! Shallow groove ! Divide hemispheres into lobes ! Fissure ! Deeper groove ! Separates large regions of the brain Five Lobes Separated By Sulci ! Superficial lobes ! Frontal ! Parietal ! Temporal ! Occipital ! Deep lobe ! Insula ! The central sulcus ! Separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe ! The lateral sulcus ! Outlines the temporal lobe Cerebral Hemispheres Cerebral Cortex Cerebral White Matter Basal Nuclei
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Cerebral Cortex: Outermost Layer ! Mostly gray matter ! Contains billions of interneurons ! Contains our consciousness and personality ! Controls many of our voluntary responses Functional Areas of Cerebral Cortex ! Neurons that work together are often located together ! Mapping of function is an approximation ! Maps are oversimplified Functional Areas of Cerebral Cortex ! Three major types of functional areas ! All are for processing not input or output ! Motor areas (Red) ! Sensory areas (Blue) ! Association areas (Light colors) Control of Cerebral Cortex Functions ! Contralateral control ! Each hemisphere controls functions of the opposite side of the body ! Common ! Ipsilateral control ! Hemisphere controls functions on same side of body ! Rare
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Lateralization: Left and Right Hemispheres Specialize ! Hemispheres are roughly equivalent !
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BI13_Ch12 PP Slides - Topics The Central Nervous System...

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