06Ch03AccidentTheories-CH 3

06Ch03AccidentTheories-CH 3 - 1 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety 2 Chapter 3 Accidents in Construction CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety Why do accidents happen in construction? Physical hazards Environmental hazards Human factors No safety regulations or poor ones Poor communication within, between, and among various trades working on a job site Accidents should not be viewed as inevitable just because hazards exist. For every accident that occurs, there is a cause. 3 Chapter 3 Theories of Accident Causation The most widely known theories of accident causation: Domino theory Human factors theory Accident / incident theory Epidemiological theory Systems theory Combination theory Behavioral theory CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety 4 Chapter 3 Domino Theory CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety Herbert W. Heinrich Travelers Insurance Company In the late 1920s, studying reports of 75,000 workplace accidents, he concluded the following: 88% of accidents are caused by unsafe acts committed by fellow workers 10% of accidents are caused by unsafe conditions 2% of accidents are unavoidable Contemporary research considers domino theory as outdated however todays more 5 Chapter 3 Axioms of Workplace Safety CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety Conclusions laid foundation for Axioms of Industrial Safety (came to be known as the Domino Theory) 1. Injuries result from a completed series of factors, one of which is the accident itself. 2. An accident can occur only as the result of an unsafe act by a person or a physical or mechanical hazard, or both. 3. Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior by people. 4. An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an accident or injury. 5. The reasons why people commit unsafe acts can serve as helpful guides in selecting corrective actions. 6. The severity of an accident is largely fortuitous, and the accident that caused it is largely preventable. 6 Chapter 3 Axioms of Workplace Safety CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety 1. The best accident prevention techniques are analogous with the best quality and productivity standards. 2. Management should assume responsibility for safety because it is in the best position to get results. 3. The supervisor is the key person in the prevention of workplace accidents. 4. In addition to the direct costs of an accident (i.e., compensation, liability claims, medical costs, and hospital expenses), there are also hidden or indirect costs. Heinrich believed any safety programs taking all 10 axioms into consideration will likely be effective. 7 Chapter 3 Domino Theory CEE 698 Construction Health and Safety Five factors in sequence leading to an accident: 1. Ancestry and social environment. Negative character traits that may lead people to behave in an unsafe manner can be inherited...
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06Ch03AccidentTheories-CH 3 - 1 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3...

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