Menon epigenetics in cancer 5-2-08

Menon epigenetics in cancer 5-2-08 - Epigenetics in Cancer...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cancer the end stage of an underlying spectrum of genetic and “epigenetic” disorders Epigenetics in Cancer Anil Menon, 2925 CVC Anil.Menon@uc.edu
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Gene expression is a complex (multifactorial) phenotype that is likely to involve: Genetic Contributions (predisposing haplotypes) Environmental Contributions (diet and lifestyle) Epigenetic Contributions (maternal factors that affect predisposition to obesity in the adult)
Background image of page 2
EPIGENETIC FACTORS : Epigenetic effect : An effect that “modifies” the action of a gene in response to environment. Example – methylation of DNA or X chromosome inactivation. Key point is that it can be both heritable (stable from generation too generation) and REVERSIBLE.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Multiple molecular activities during the cell cycle must be precisely regulated Maximize the animals “genetic fitness” Must take into account inputs from the environment (food supply, genotoxic agents etc.) which are highly variable Why did epigenetic mechanisms evolve?
Background image of page 4
How are molecular reactions optimized by the environment? 1. “Hardwired” Genetic Selection: Levels of expression (promoter variants) Altered enzyme activity (variants in active sites) 2. “Softwired” Epigenetic Setting : Levels of expression (promoter methylation) Altered enzyme activity (posttranslation modification)
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
The programming of the genome is controlled by the epigenome The epigenome is composed of two components: 1) the chromatin which is associated with the DNA and 1) DNA methylation which is part of the covalent structure of the genome and is therefore a stable long-term signal These two components INTERACT and are interdependent Key Concepts
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Hypermethylation of CpG islands in Promoters of Tumor Suppressor Genes
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Genetics and the Genome Structural unit of the genome is a spatial unit described by: Promoter region Enhancer region Splice sites/introns Coding regions 3’ regions for stability/transport
Background image of page 10
dimensional structure The DNA is wound approx twice around 4 dimeric histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) with H1 as the linker between each nucleosome
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 43

Menon epigenetics in cancer 5-2-08 - Epigenetics in Cancer...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 12. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online