chem 211 2 notes - Ionic Bonds Occur when electrons are...

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Ionic Bonds Occur when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the next, held together by electrostatic attraction ( coulombic attraction) of oppositely charged ions Usually between metal and nonmetal Interactions between Ions Find lattice energy in solid: difference in energy between atoms packed together in solid and ions widely separated. 2 1 2 0 4 A p z z N e E A d πε = - A is Madelung constant , dependent on how ions are arranged. Negative for repulsion ion stack together in crystalline structures. Coulombic interation between ions in a solid is large when ions are small and highly charged Electron configuration of ions Ions want to get an octet Nonmetals don’t normally lose electrons, but can gain electrons to complete valence shell In cation, remove electrons from np, ns and (n-1)d. For anion, add electrons until oble gas config has been reached Transef of electrons results in formation of octet or duplet in valence shells. Metals achieve an octet by electron loss, nonmetals by electron gain
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chem 211 2 notes - Ionic Bonds Occur when electrons are...

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