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Unformatted text preview: Intermolecular forces Type of interaction Kj/mol species Ion-ion 250 Only ions Ion-dipole 15 Ions, polar molecules Dipole-dipole 2 .3 Stationary polar molcls Rotating polar molcls Dipole-induced dipole 2 At least 1 must be polar London (induced- induced) 2 All types Hydrogen bonding 20 Molecules w/ N O F Formation of condensed phases Phase is form of matter uniform thoruhgout both chemical composition and physical state • Condensed phase is solid or liquid ♦ Attractive forces between particles pull them together 1 2 4 p q q E r πε = Ion-dipole forces Hydration, when water molecules attach to ions 1/r^2 • 2 p z E r μ- • Depends more strongly on distance Are for strong, highly charged ions, often hydrated in compounds Dipole-dipole Dependent on 1/r^3 for stationary dipoles • 1 2 6 p E r α α- Dependent on 1/r^6 for rotating molecules • 2 2 1 2 6 p E r μ μ- • Common in liquids and gases London forces (2 induced dipoles) Depends on polarizability...
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