L41S07Radiochem_Nuclides-1 04-30-07-2

L41S07Radiochem_Nuclides-1 04-30-07-2 - CHEM 1A,...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEM 1A, L41:"Nucl. & Radiochemistry-1" Summary neutrons 160 Actinides 202 The Nuclides Zone of Stability (neutron : proton) 140 120 100 decay region - (1.5:1) 80 Hg ratio 80 110 48 60 (1.3:1) Cd (1:1) 56 40 26 20 6 3 0 20 Fe decay region + stable light nuclei (1:1) (1.5:1) stable heavy nuclei (1.2:1) Li (1:1) 40 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche protons 60 80 100 nuclear `magic numbers' 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 L41-8 9 Fe 26 56 Binding Energy 84 36 (MeV) binding energy / nucleon ( MeV) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 3 2 Kr 1 235 Fission 235 92 92 U 1 6 3 Fu sion Li 0 n + U 92 36 Kr + 141 nuclear energy lighter 56 Ba + 3 0n He H 20 exothermic 1 1 `real' solar energy heavier real' 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 210 220 230 H + 1H 2 3 2 He 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche mass L41-6 Radiation: Particles and Waves gamma-rays, x-rays UV gamma10-16 10-12 ionizing 10-8 VISIBLE Waves IR 10-4 MW Radio,NMR,MRI Name Alpha Beta (-) (Beta (+) Particles 100 104 non-ionizing non- 108 m Chemically Symbol 4 4 helium nucleus 2 , 2He 0 e , electron -1 + 0 positron e, 1 Stopped by paper skin, clothing 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche Exposure to Radiation We are constantly exposed to radiation! Cosmic Sources 1p 90% He 7% Li, Be, B, C, N, O ~3% reacts with earth's atmosphere: neutrons, protons, earth' photons and charged particles are reaching us. Terrestrial Sources geologic material: rocks, soil; natural decay series food 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2004 M.Kubinec, H.Nitsche 1 CHEM 1A, L41:"Nucl. & Radiochemistry-1" Exposure millirem Body, Food (10%) 238 200 92 U 222 86 Radon (55%) Rn Man Made (3%) Medical (15%) 55 25 25 Cosmic (10%) Other (<1%) 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 25 9 3 Terrestrial (10%) 160 Actinides 202 The Nuclides Zone of Stability (neutron : proton) 140 120 neutrons 100 decay region - (1.5:1) 80 Hg ratio 80 110 48 60 (1.3:1) Cd (1:1) 56 40 26 20 6 decay region Fe (1.2:1) + stable light nuclei (1:1) (1.5:1) stable heavy nuclei Li (1:1) 3 0 20 40 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche protons 60 80 100 nuclear `magic numbers' 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 56 9 26 Fe Binding Energy 84 36 binding energy / nucleon (MeV) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 3 Kr 1 235 Fission 235 92 92 U 1 6 3 Fu sion Li 0 n+ U 92 36 Kr + 141 nuclear energy lighter 56 Ba + 3 0n He 2 H 20 exothermic 1 1 `real' solar energy heavier real' 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 210 220 230 H + 1H 2 3 2 He 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche mass 2004 M.Kubinec, H.Nitsche 2 CHEM 1A, L41:"Nucl. & Radiochemistry-1" Nuclear Decays Alpha Decay: Beta (-) Decay: ((neutron proton) proton) 238 92 U I 4 2 0 -1 0 +1 0 + 234 Th 90 e + 54 Xe + e + 10 Ne + 201 79 22 131 131 53 22 11 201 80 Beta (+) Decay: (proton neutron) neutron) (positron emission) (proton neutron) neutron) Na Electron Capture: Annihilation: 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche Hg + -1 e 0 -1 Au + 2 e + +1 e 0 Mass - Energy Relation Annihilation: 0 -1 e + +1 e 0 2 E = 2 x h = mc2 h m = 2 x me = 2 x 5.48580 x 10-4 amu c2 = 931 MeV/amu 1 amu = 2 x 10-24 g 1 MeV = 1.6 x 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche E ~ 1.02 MeV J 10-13 E ~ 1011 J/mole chemical bond ~ 105 J/mole ChemQuiz 41.1 The intensity of solar radiation is 1024 W (1036 MeV/s). What is the rate at which mass is lost from the sun? 1 amu = 2 x 10-24 g 1) ~10 g/s 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2) ~106 g/s 3) ~109 g/s 2004 M.Kubinec, H.Nitsche 3 CHEM 1A, L41:"Nucl. & Radiochemistry-1" ChemQuiz 41.2 Which nuclide is an alpha decay product of 239Pu? Pu? 239Pu 1) 235Pu 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2) 235Np 3) 235U ChemQuiz 41.3 What are the products of the following beta decays? 22Na 22Na -1e + + +1 e ??? ??? 1) 22Ne, 22Mg 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2) 21Na, 23Na 3) 21Ne, 23Mg ChemQuiz 41.4 How much energy (in eV) is released eV) when a positron and electron annihilate each other? Mass of the electron and positron is 5.486 x 10-4 amu 1) ~1 eV 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2) ~103 eV 3) ~106 eV 2004 M.Kubinec, H.Nitsche 4 CHEM 1A, L41:"Nucl. & Radiochemistry-1" Lecture Complete 2004 M.Kubinec, H. Nitsche 2004 M.Kubinec, H.Nitsche 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2009 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Nitsche during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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