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L32S07i_Hetero_equil 04-09-07

L32S07i_Hetero_equil 04-09-07 - CHEM 1A...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEM 1A, L32: "Heterogeneous Equilibrium" Free Energy and Equilibrium aA+bB G > 0 Free Energy and Temperature G = H -T S lnK = S -H 1 + R R T Previously G = 0 cC+dD G, K K<1 K=1 G < 0 K>1 G? intercept = H? slope = -S? S? ln K intercept = R slope = R -H? G = RT ln K A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB K = exp ( -G RT ) L25-4 A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB T Endo Endo L33-10 1/T lnK = G - H 1 S + R T R G = H -T S T H S HS HS HS lnK lnK + - - - + + - + 1/T A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines L25-9 L32-1 Free Energy and the Reaction Quotient G(Reactants) G = G(P) G(R) G(P) G < 0 G = 0 G > 0 Q<K Q=K Q>K G = G RT lnK = G(Products) G = G+ + RT lnQ 0 lnK 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines L32-2 Heterogeneous Equilibrium, Gases, Liquids, Solids Solubility of gases in water CO2 (g) Q= CO2 (aq) aq) Henry's Law, Solubility [x] = K Px K: mM X(aq) per atm X X(aq) Xe 4.4 N2 0.7 O2 1.3 CO2 NH3 30 > 104 Summary CO2 CO2(aq) aq) Gas He K L26-4 Ar 1.5 [CO2 (aq)] aq)] PCO2 = K (T) Equ. Equ. 0.4 Carbonated drinks, "Bends" during diving A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB Like dissolves Like, Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic. L26-5 A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB Solubility of Ionic Solids BaSO4 (s) BaSO Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) aq) aq) Conductometric Titration Ba(OH)2 (aq) = Ba2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) Ba( aq) aq) aq) H2SO4 (aq) = 2 H+ (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) aq) aq) aq) Ba2+ (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) = BaSO4 (s) aq) aq) BaSO 2 H+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) = 2H2O aq) aq) Ba2+ OH- H2SO4 Q= [Ba2+] [SO42-] = K sp(T) Equ [Ba [SO Ksp = 1.1 x 10-10 x = [Ba2+] = [SO42-] [Ba [SO x2 = 1.1 x 10-10, x ~ 10-5 M A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB SO42Ba2+ BaSO4 L34-10 A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB L34-14 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 1 CHEM 1A, L32: "Heterogeneous Equilibrium" Heterogeneous Equilibrium Gases, Liquids, Solids Solubility of gases in water CO2 (g) Q= CO2 (aq) aq) = K (T) Equ. Equ. CO2 CO2(aq) [CO2 (aq)] aq)] PCO2 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines L32-4 Henry's Law, Solubility [x] = K Px Gas He K 0.4 Ar 1.5 K: mM X(aq) per atm X X(aq) Xe 4.4 N2 0.7 O2 1.3 CO2 NH3 30 > 104 Separations: Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic ~ `Likes dissolve Likes' Hydrophobic, Likes' 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines [S]L1 coefficient = K `partition coefficient'' [S]L2 L32-5 ChemQuiz 32.1 A solution has equal concentrations of He (aq) and N2 (aq). aq) aq) Which is true ? 1) PHe < PN2 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 2) PHe = P 2 N 3) PHe > PN 2 L32-6 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 2 CHEM 1A, L32: "Heterogeneous Equilibrium" ChemQuiz 32.2 On a warm day, a can of carbonated beverage expands. From this, we expands. conclude that the dissolution of CO2 is.... CO2 (g) CO2 (aq) aq) 1) Exothermic 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 2) Isothermic 3) Endothermic L32-8 Solubility of Ionic Solids BaSO4 (s) BaSO 2 Ba2+ (aq) + SO4-(aq) aq) aq) Q= [Ba2+] [SO4 - = K sp(T) Equ [Ba [SO 2 ] Ksp = 1.1 x 10-10 x= [Ba2+] [Ba = [SO4 -] [SO 2 x2 = 1.1 x 10-10, x ~ 10-5 M 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines Ba2+ 2 SO4- BaSO4 (s) L32-10 ChemQuiz 32.3 Which of the following will be required in the least amount to dissolve a 1.0 mg speck of BaSO4 BaSO BaSO4 1) 0.1M H2SO4 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 2) 0.01M BaCl2 3) H2O BaCl L32-11 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 3 CHEM 1A, L32: "Heterogeneous Equilibrium" Common Ion Effect -Le Chtelier BaSO4 (s) BaSO 2 Ba2+ (aq) + SO4-(aq) aq) aq) x x (0.1 + x) = Ksp 0.1 + x = 1.1 x 10-10 x 10-9 M 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines L32-13 Conductometric Titration Ba(OH)2 (aq) = Ba2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) Ba( aq) aq) aq) H2SO4 (aq) = 2 H+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) aq) aq) aq) -2 H2SO4 Ba2+ (aq) + SO-2 (aq) = BaSO4 (s) aq) BaSO 4 aq) 2 H+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) = 2H2O aq) aq) Ba2+ OHL32-14 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines ChemQuiz 32.4 For the titration of Ba(OH)2 Ba( solution with H2SO4, which is the correct plot of conductance vs. added H2SO4? 1) 2) H2SO4 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 3) H2SO4 H2SO4 L32-15 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 4 CHEM 1A, L32: "Heterogeneous Equilibrium" Lecture Complete 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines L32-17 2004 M.Kubinec, A. Pines 5 ...
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