Unformatted text preview: China D.E. Mungello, The Great Encounter: China and the West, 15001800 Quiz: Mungello, chs. 13 1. T/F In their attempts to convert Chinese elites (literati), Jesuit missionaries made a conscious effort to blend elements of Christianity with Confucianism. 2. T/F Jesuit missionaries in China tried to convert the elites, working from the top down, whereas Franciscans concentrated more on the common people. 3. T/F The crucifix was the one Christian symbol that was accepted readily by the Chinese and therefore greatly facilitated Jesuit missions. 4. T/F Manchu reign in China was more open and less resistant to foreign influence than Ming rule had been. 5. T/F In sum, Mungello believes that while there was a broadbased rejection of Christianity and most western influences, the rejection was not total. I. Introductory Concerns 1. One of the First Civilizations 2. Isolation and Continuity Isolation .Long running dynasties (continuity): Chou Dynasty that existed from about 1122 B.C. until 256 B.C. Tang618906 Sung9601279 Picture of Great Wall 1 Map of Great Wall Mungello, Chap. 2 Jesuit Accommodation Acceptance of Christianity The Franciscans Pp. 1617 Why Confucianism? P. 22 Chinese Rites controversy Why did the three pillars accept? Christianity as subversive sect?? Closing of Chinese Minds Mungello, chap. 3 Chinese rejection of Christianity Two Interpretations of Rejection, pp. 5859 Pp. 4755 Gernet Zurcher I. Introductory Concerns 1. One of the First Civilizations 2. Isolation and Continuity Isolation Continuity The Cost of Isolation Feudal Lords Size Rivers and Mountains Problems 3. War Lords 4. Geography Physical Map of China II. Chinese Religion, Philosophy, and Political Theory Philosophy and Religion 5th Century BC Philosophical Schools II. Chinese Religion, Philosophy, and Political Theory Confucius (551479 B.C.) Contemporaries Buddha in India Zoraster in Persia Early Greek Philosophers Body and Mind Individual and Community Nature and Human Spirit Heaven Harmonies of Confucius Confucius Portrait "The Master said: `To learn and to practice on occasion what one has learnt--is this not true pleasure? The coming of a friend from a faroff land--is this not true joy?' Confucius Quote A scholar who is not serious will not command respect, nor will his learning carry with it authority." Confucius Quote 2 "Acquire new knowledge whilst thinking over the old, and you may become a teacher of others." Confucius Quote 3 "Study without thought is vain; thought without study is perilous." Confucius Quote 4
"Yu, shall I tell you what true knowledge is? When you know, to know that you know, and when you do not know, to know that you do not know --that is true knowledge." II. Chinese Religion, Philosophy, and Political Theory 2. Taoism--Lao Tzu (6th cen. B.C.) Tao The Influence of Confucianism and Taoism Confucius' Tao: system of moral behavior Lao Tzu's Tao: way of nature or order of universe A Note on China's Dynasties Cyclical Nature New Dynasties Recaptured Predecessor's Successes Contrasted With . . . Europe Japan III. The Ming Dynasty (1368 1644) China Under the Mongols Marco Polo (13th century) Hong Wu (13681398) III. The Ming Dynasty (1368 1644) Key Developments During Ming Rule 1. Agricultural Revolution 2. Population Growth 3. Urbanization Extent of Mongol Empire III. Ming Dynasty (13681644) 16th Century China Period of Trade Ming Decline Commercialized; Not Industrialized Usual Reasons China's Third Commercial Revolution First Two During Han and Sung Dynasties Dynastic Struggles Weak Rulers Over Extension III. Ming Dynasty (13681644) Ming Decline (cont'd) Why did West surpass? Forfeited the Mandate of Heaven Manchu Qing (Ching) Wanli (15731619) Invasion of the Manchu 1. No Enlightenment or Scientific Revolution 2. No Industrial Revolution IV. Manchu Qing (Ching) Dynasty (16811912) Kangxi (16621722) Contemporaries Louis XIV and Peter the Great The Great Period (Launched under Kangxi) Smashed last Mongol threat Chinese Literature Increased Porcelain production Cut spending and taxes Cut down on oppression of people by government bureaucrats Qianglong (17361795) IV. Manchu Qing (Ching) Dynasty (16811912) Central to World Clash with Britain Clash of Cultures George Macartney V. Mungello, chaps. 45
1. T/F Some European intellectuals believed that the Chinese language was possibly the original universal language that existed before the confusion of tongues that resulted from the bibilical story of the Tower of Babel. 2. T/F Leibnitz believed that while China needed Christian missionaries to teach them about revelation from God, Europe also needed Chinese missionaries teach practical philosophy like ethics. 3. T/F The Enlightenment philosophes (popularizers) of the 18th century had the most accurate view of China. 4. T/F At the beginning of the 18th century Sinophilia dominated in European thinking about China, but at the end of the century the weight of the European view had shifted to Sinophobia. 5. T/F While ethnocentrism has been exhibited throughout history, dividing people according to race (i.e. the color of their skin) emerged in the 18th century. 6. T/F Mungello says that by 1800 the great encounter between the West and China was over. V. Mungello, chaps. 45 Chapter 4 European Acceptance of Chinese Culture *Three Types of Europeans who Studied China 1. Missionaries 2. ProtoSinologists 3. The Populizers Jesuit Missionaries
Accommodation .Emphasized the natural philosophy of Confucian. .Could be harmonized with Christian revelation .Could Boomerang on them, p. 83 .Chinese Rites Controversy p. 84 ProtoSinologists/polyhistor, p. 85 Looking for the Key to Language .The Clavis Sinica, p, 85 .Real Characters, p. 86 .Looking for the universal .This universalism predates European views of their own cultural superiority. ProtoSinologists (cont.) The Challenge to Biblical Chronology, p.89 Leibnitz d, 1716 .System of numbersLooking for common language or numbers .see p. 96 Bouvet and Universal lawgiver, p. 9192, Fu Xi .FiguristsChinese ancient writings were allegorical prefigurations of Christian teachings. The PhilosophesPopulizers The Populizers, pp. 113ff Enlightenment Philosophes .p. 116ff View of reason and revelation .See especially 118120 Philosophes (cont.) Christian Wolff d. 1754-- pp. 118120 .First Enlightenment thinker to praise China .Saw Chinese as the great rationalists whose philosophy was capable of developing the ideal form of government. .Others then characterized this as a battle between the great rationaliststhe Chinese and the Enlightenment philosophes, and the irrational and fanatical pietists. Voltaire .Helped replace European interest in Chinese language and culture with interest in the politics and religion. Idealization p. 121 A lesson on studying other cultures. .Shallowness of Populizers From Sinophilia to Sinophobia From Sinophilia to Sinophobia, p. 122 Ethnocentrism v. Racism .123126 The Irony of the Macartney Mission Audience with Qianlong Emperor VI. Conclusion Why Did the West Seek to Dominate the East? ...
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