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Unformatted text preview: Imperialism and the Non Western World To 1914 I. Introduction 19th century clash between West and the rest After 1600 or so West began to seek domination of nonwestern world
Why? Economic Nationalist Religious II. The Motivations for Imperialism Economic Motivations Need for Markets Need for Raw Materials H.M. Stanley d. 1909 Marxist View of Imperialism V.I. Lenin--"Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism" Nationalist Motivation Germany and Italy Britain Heinrich Treitschke d. 1896 Their day in the sun Jingoism Social Darwinism Militarism Buffer States Mercenaries Humanitarian and Religious Rudyard Kipling d. 1936 White Man's Burden The Jungle Book The Man Who Would Be King Nobel Prize (1907) White Man's Burden (1899)
Take up the White Man's burden Send forth the best ye breed Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild Your newcaught, sullen peoples, Halfdevil and halfchild. Humanitarian and Religious Missions Saving souls III. North Africa (Ottoman) The Ottoman EmpireThe Sick Man of Europe Europeans Throw Off Turkish Rule Nationalism Serbs 1804 Greeks 1821 Romania and Bulgaria Ottoman Empire European Interference In the Turkish Empire Annexation of North Africa Egypt
Napoleon's Campaigns 1790s Backwardness in 19th century Europe gains a Foothold 1850s--Quasiindependence from Ottomans Accepts funds from European powers Suez Canal Ismail and France Agreement (1859) Canal completed in 1875 Disraeli bought the stock Egypt forced to sell its share Britain Takes Over Canal Egypt Tried to Repudiate its debts (1879) Britain and France took over finances British Takeover of Egypt Lord Cromer (18831907) Modernized Egypt Overhaul of political system Best example of British imperialism The Rest of North Africa Italy and France IV. SubSaharan Africa To 1870, Prior to European Advances Rich African Civilization Ghana Timbuktu Tribal Identities Decentralized and Weak Enter the Europeans Slave trade Estimates 17th--1.2 million 18th--6 million 16th century--125,000 Overall--15 million 19th Century shift to interior of Africa Exploration and Mapping David Livingstone d. 1873 Scottish Missionary 18531873 H.M. Stanley d. 1904 "Dr. Livingstone I presume" 18701914 1870--10% controlled by Europe 1914--90% Belgium Takes Lead after 1870 Stanley Belgian Congo Bismarck's Congress 1884 Ground rules for Colonizing Africa Nation's must notify each other Disputes settled by arbitration Territory must be occupied first What Actually Happened Congress's Regulations ignored Trickery Bribery The Result Ethiopia and Liberia African cultures thrown in to disarray Taxes to faraway countries Tribes split Bewilderment The only independent states by 1914 Uneven development Positive Results Muslim slave trade ended Modernization Liberalism But, a high price. V. India to 1914 IndiaThe Mughul Dynasty The Crumbling Dynasty British and French Trading Co.'s Military fortification of trading co.'s Shah Jahan 16281658 Aurangzeb 16581707 The British Take Control 1759 By mid 19th century Miraculous Year 1759 Military General Viceroy Appointed Mughuls as puppets Mughuls cease to exist British Reforms in India Outlawed Burning of Widows Killing of Baby girls Introduced liberal education Still 90% illiteracy 99% for women Indian Opposition to British Rule Indian National Congress 1885 Nationalism Indian Representation (1909) Moderates satisfied Provincial Indian majorities Central govt. still dominated by British Nationalism would grow VI. Asia to 1914 American Involvement The SpanishAmerican War 1898 Cuba Philippines China Chinese Civilization Continuity Qing (Manchu) Recall MacCartney mission Opium Wars of the 1840s and 1850s Opium Smuggling From India Chinese tried to Stop it Unequal Treaties Europeans gain foothold Britain and China Taiping Rebellion 18501864 Western ways in China Qing concessions Rebellion Estimates Qing barely survived 2040 million killed Carving Up China War with Japan 1894 Britain, France, Germany, Russia All gain footholds The Boxer Rebellion 18991900 Young Intellectuals Demand for Reform Attempts to drive out foreigners Crushing the Rebellion Open Door Notes "Revive the Qing; destroy the foreign." Coalition in 1900 John Hay Revolution of 1912 Overthrow of Qing Republic of China Japan RussoJapanese War 1904 Japanese Strength (next slide) Deshima RussoJapanese War 1904 Religious fascism--Shinto Defeated Russia Shocked the world VII. Conclusion: Evaluation of Imperialism Positive Aspects Law and Order End of Muslim Slave Trade Introduction of Liberalism Economic Improvements Missionary Contribution Negative Aspects violation of tenets of liberalism violation of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution abuse of teachings of Christianity 20th centuryImperialism comes home to roost "Whatsoever a man sows..." ...
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- Spring '08
- World History