L'Ancien Regime

L'Ancien Regime - L'ancien Regime' The Coming of the French...

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Unformatted text preview: L'ancien Regime' The Coming of the French Revolution I. Importance of the French Revolution Enlightenment Principles at Work Overthrow of the monarchy Sovereignty of the people Republican ideals Rise of Modern Nationalism Nation-state II. France in the 18th Century 1. The Second Hundred Years War 1689-1789 War of the League of Augsburg 1689-1697 The War of Spanish Succession 1702-1713 Philip of Anjou d. 1746 Peace of Utrecht (1713) (France humbled) Louis XIV's Death 1715 End of Splendid Century Economic decline after Colbert d. 1783 Religious Policy--Revocation of Edict of Nantes 1. The Second Hundred Years War 1689-1789 War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 France opposed by broad coalition France loses North America Great war debt French aided American colonies More debt Seven Years War 1756-1763 American Revolution 1775-1783 III. External Events that Contributed to the Fall of L'ancien regime Seven Years War 1756-1763 Britain's Miraculous Year (1759) Loss of prestige at Home Economic Strains Administrative Problems Success of American Revolution Enlightenment Ideas Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau Further Debt IV. Internal Problems That Led to The Revolution 1. Administrative Problems Divine Right Monarchy ?? After Louis XIV Nobility began to get power back Decentralization 2. Economic and Financial Problems Deficit Spending War expenditures Court expenses Graft and Corruption Unjust Taxation Unjust Taxation Clerical Taxes Tythe--1/20 to 1/15 of peasants produce Seignorial taxes on land the church owned Direct--Taille Indirect--Gabelle 5-11% of average income Corvee--Labor tax on peasants 12% of peasant produce Royal Taxes Seignorial Dues Total taxation 60% of average person's income Tax corruption added to that IV. Internal Problems That Led to The Revolution 3. Social tensions First Estate Clergy 2-4% Second Estate Nobility 2-4% Third Estate Everyone else 95% Third Estate Peasants Proletariat Bourgeosie IV. Internal Problems That Led to The Revolution 4. Leadership problems 4. Leadership Problems-- Louis XV Great Grandson of Louis Regency 1715-1723 Cardinal Fleury (1723-1743) Sex Scandals 1715-1774 Madame de Pompadour d. 1764 Seven Years War Her decision Madame du Barry d. 1793 Low Background Hated by the French No political interests Louis XV's 2 interests Independence of Poland Suppression of the Jansenist movement 4. Leadership Problems-- Louis XVI 1774-1793 d. 1794 Well meaning Morally Upright Dull Hunting, workshop Good neighbor Bad King Louis XVI Marie Antoinette d. 1793 Hapsburg Daughter of Maria Theresa "Let them eat cake." (??) V. The Revolt of the Nobility 1. Ann Robert Jacques Turgot 1774-1776 Advocated Free Trade Cuts in pensions Fairer taxation Famine aid Turgot's Downfall Denounced Entry into American Revolution Would bankrupt France Would not weaken Britain Nobility opposed him King fired him 1776 V. The Revolt of the Nobility 2. Jacques Necker 1778-1781 Swiss Protestant (Geneva) Financial Wizard Replaced Turgot Infuriated free traders Necker's Methods Reorganized accounting procedures Reorganized taxation Commissioned study of venality Financed American war through loans No new taxes Necker's Methods Compte Rendu First ever Public balance sheet for govt. Showed healthy surplus of funds Extraordinary Accounts Resignation Protestant outsider Necker's next book "Why can't you be like Necker?" V. The Revolt of the Nobility 1. Charles Calonne 1783-1787 Replaced Necker Calonne's Methods Lavish spending Good for credit 653 million livres (1783-1789) Debt Service--1/2 of govt. revenues by mid-1780s More borrowing Reorganized Tax system Loosening government controls on economy Physiocrat methods Desire for legitimation of his methods VI. Conclusion Calonne's desire to have some body of government give his policies legitimacy led to the calling of the Estates General The Estates General had not met since 1614 Calling the Estates General would precipitate the Revolution ...
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