Unformatted text preview: Liberalism I. Introduction--Review of Liberalism Until 1848 Liberalism and nationalism went hand in hand After this they are often divorced from one another Marks of Liberalism Freedom Natural rights Innate goodness of human beings Progress Secularism Faith in education II. Rise of Liberalism Bourgeoisie Glorious Revolution (1688) American Revolution (17751783) French Revolution (1789) Britain, France, U.S. Laws made by elected officials, free speech, press, religion, assembly Proconstitution Laissez faire Rise of Liberalism France U.S. most radical (frontier) Britain Typical (??) Most conservative of liberal states III. Liberalism in 19th Century Britain Need for Reform (1800) Whigs and Tories Calls for freedom of press Religious freedom Parliament controlled by aristocracy Began in the Glorious Revolution By 1800 were modern political parties Whigs--liberals Toriesconservatives Reform Bill of 1832
1. Transferred more power to House of Commons 2. Extended the vote to nearly all property owners 3. Reduced number of rotten boroughs This increased representation in urban centers Reform Bill of 1867
Workers rioting and striking Passed by Conservative (Tories) 1. Increased electorate by 88% 2. Abolished all rotten boroughs Made representation equal Women and some farm workers still could not vote IV. William Gladstone (1809-1898) Britain's Leading Liberal Four times prime minister Got more liberal with age Evangelical Christian Sought more rights for more people Little Englander "Grand Old Man" Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Gladstone's conservative rival Prime minister when Gladstone wasn't Big Englander Gladstone's Reforms (1868-1874) --The Glorious Ministry Education Act 1870 Civil Service Reform Military Reform Mass education (compulsory) Increase from 1 to 4 million From patronage to merit No more flogging No more buying of office Secret ballot box Political Reform Gladstone's Reforms--Second Ministry Reform Bill of 1884 Employers Liability Act 1884 Increased franchise Nearly all males could vote Policy toward Ireland--Home Rule (1885ff) Employers liable for some work related accidents Worked for Irish independence but was defeated Got Anglican church disestablished in Ireland Nationalism I. Introduction Definition Highest loyalty to the nationstate Commonalities of Nationalism Descent Language Territory Political institutions Customs Religion Corporate will Nationalism in England Came here first 17th and 18th centuries Enlightenment movement Political and rational Joined to liberalism Nationalism in France Second to experience nationalism 1789 Enlightenment Political Joined to liberalism Nationalism in Central Europe Nationalism and Liberalism divorced from each other Resulted from Napoleon's wars Cultural instead of political Racial/ethnic Irrational II. Nationalism in Action in Italy Disappointment of 1848 Giuseppe Mazzini d. 1872 Republic of 1849 Pope Pius IX Louis Napoleon Turn to war as method Count Camillo Cavour d. 1861 Prime Minister of Piedmont (1852) Used war as instrument of nationalism Cavour and Napoleon III Napoleon III Cavour Aligned with Napoleon III War with Austria 1859 France got Nice and Savoy Napoleon got Lombardy Gave it to Piedmont Italian nationalist tried to kill Napoleon The nationalist then wrote a letter from prison: "Remember that, so long as Italy is not independent, the peace of Europe and Your Majesty is but an empty dream....Set my country free, and the blessings of twentyfive million people will follow you everywhere and forever." Italy: 1859 Giuseppe Garibaldi d. 1882
Defeated in 1849 (southern Italy) Fled to U.S. Cavour convinced Garibaldi to return Red Shirts Used war and plebiscites 1860 1861 Final Consolidation 1866 Rome 1870 Gained Venetia from Austria France defeated in FrancoPrussian War Italians took Rome from France King of Piedmont (1861) Piedmont constitution became constitution of Italy Victor Emmanuel II Italy: 1870 II. Germany Deeper (Volk) Nationalism Johann Gottfried Herder Deeper (Volk) Nationalism Johann Gottfried Herder Volkgeist History and nature are divine Each nationality a manifestation of divine Thought nationalism would promote peace Prussia v. Austria Used nationalism Protestant Industrial/urban North German states looked to Prussia Distrusted Catholic Rural/agricultural South German states looked to Austria Otto von Bismarck d. 1898 Otto von Bismarck d. 1898 Prime Minister of Prussia (1861) Antiliberal Anticonstitutional Realpolitik King William I "Not by vote but by blood." Rule by power Bismarck's Victories Defeated Denmark 1864 Defeats Austria--7 Weeks War (1866) FrancoPrussian War (18701871) (Next slide) Refused to take over Austria Quarreled with Austria over spoils Franco-Prussian War (1870) Napoleon III Hohenzollern monarch in Spain? worried about balance of power Bismarck's Elms Dispatch France wants assurance this will not happen Sends ambassador to get assurance from Frederick Wilhelm I Made it look like Frederick had insulted French French attacked and started the war Exactly what Bismarck wanted Franco-Prussian War (1870) Provoked German Nationalism Prussia smashed and punished France Napoleon III captured Third Republic Proclaimed Indemnity--France has to pay Prussian Occupation of French territory German states join Prussia Result of Franco-Prussian War: The Second Reich (1871-1918) New Balance of Power Second Reich Kaiser Wilhelm I New German confederation (nation) (Holy Roman Empire was First Reich) Bismarck became (Iron) Chancellor of Germany King of Prussia was now Kaiser of Germany Germany 1866-1871 IV. Evaluation Nationalism in Central Europe Bismarck Neither liberal nor rational--romantic and emotional Would lead Europe to WWI Showed Germans what could be accomplished with "iron and blood" Realpolitik ...
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