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Unformatted text preview: The Magisterial Reformation: Luther and Calvin Martin Luther (14831546) Medieval Background for the Reformation Medieval Worldview Renaissance Humanism Renaissance humanists challenged the church's authority They argued for the right of conscience Luther's Life Father Hans, Mother Margaretta One generation removed from peasant status Metal works business Upright and pious Christians. Luther's Early Life Born November 10, 1483 in Eisleben Father wanted him to study law; Luther wanted to become a monk. Anfechtung--intense spiritual struggle Luther's Thunderstorm Experience "Help me St. Anne. I'll become a monk." Luther entered an Augustinian monastery in Erfurt in 1505. Luther's Spiritual Agony Romans 3:23--"All have sinned..." Confession Penance What if he forgot a sin? Luther as a Professor Th.D (1512) Lecturer in theology at Wittenberg. Humanist methodology What should he do? Luther as a Scholar Roman's 1:17--"The just shall live by faith" Salvation by grace through faith Sola fides (only faith) The Indulgence Controversy Johann Tetzel, d. 1519--Super Salesman of Indulgences The Indulgence Controversy, cont. Tetzel--"When a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs." "Even if one had slept with his mother...." Luther's 95 Theses October 31, 1517 Wittenberg Castle Church Attacked the theory behind indulgences Penance 95 Theses Wittenberg Castle Door Luther's Four Questions
How can one be saved? sola fides 1. What is the source of religious authority? sola scriptura 1. What is the church? Priesthood of believers 1. What is the essence of Christian life? To serve God in whatever one does
1. What happened to Luther? The Pope comes after Luther Papal Bull, 1520 Luther burned the bull The Diet of Worms, 1521 Luther appears before the Holy Roman Emperor. "Here I stand, I can do no other. God help me." What happened to Luther? Part II Frederick the Wise--Elector of Saxony Wartburg Castle German Translation of Bible Lived the rest of his life under the death sentence Wartburg Castle John Calvin, 15091564 and the Reformed Tradition Education University of Orleans--Law University of Parisclassics Geneva in Calvin's Time Bible Commonwealth Harsh laws by our standards Trying to be a City of God Calvin's Theological Ideas Like Luther -sola fides -sola scriptura The Institutes -Sovereignty of God TULIP Calvinism T--Total Depravity U--unconditional election L--limited atonement I--irresistible grace P--perseverence of the saints TULIP Does this lead to inactive determinism? Golden Gate Bridge Calvin's Religion and Politics Government by the Elect The Church--spiritual discipline The State--outward morality Cooperation between Church and State Calvinism Elsewhere FranceHuguenots Netherlands--Revolted against Spain Scotland--overthrew the queen England--English Civil War 1640s European Continent--pockets of Puritan Revolution Calvinism New EnglandPuritans ...
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