Napoleon I (1769-1821)

Napoleon I (1769-1821) - Napoleon I (1769-1821) I....

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Unformatted text preview: Napoleon I (1769-1821) I. Introduction Napoleon, Marx, and Hitler Made their mark in lands other than where they grew up Complex people Very significant French History after Revolution First Republic (1792-1804) First Empire (1804-1814) Restored Monarchy (1814-1848) Second Republic 1848ff II. Napoleon's Early Life Napoleon Bounaparte' Corisica 1769 Brienne Military Academy Unhappy and taunted Dreamed of liberating Corsica Early military career Military college 2nd lieutenant by age 16 Read vorasciously Especially loved Rousseau General Will Napoleon at 30 5'2 5'6" Vigorous, lean, tremendous stamina Could work long and hard His work was his play Suffered fatigue, cough, weakness Napoleon as military leader Asked advice of many Made his own decisions Intolerant of opposition Persecuted intellectuals who disagreed Despised the mobs Knew how to use power III. Napoleon Comes to Power Italian Campaign 1796 Knocked Austria out Coalition Took Austrian Netherlands Recognized as hero Egyptian Campaign, 1798-99 Cutting British supplies from India France getting beaten Napoleon returned to France Seizing Control of France Coup 1799 November 9--Cleared the meeting hall in Paris Abolished the Directory New Constitution First Consul-1799 First Consul for Life--1802 Emperor--1804 "If papa could see us now." Napoleon's Reforms Concordant with Pope, 1801 Napoleonic Code Finances Bank of France Consolidated and paid debts Ended tax corruption Balanced the budget State, not the church Education Legion of Honor Overall Napoleon moves against enemies of France Took Austria-1801 Treaty of Amiens with British--1802 IV. Napoleonic Wars Plan to Invade Britain 150,000 troops poised on coast Navy to lure British out to high seas Pierre Villeneuve d. 1806 Admiral Horatio Nelson d. 1805 Battle of Trafalgar 1805 Nelson v. Villeneuve Cadiz English lost 450,1200 injured French-Spanish lost 4000, 2500 wounded English lost no ships French-Spanish lost 20 ships, only 3 workable after the battle Nelson died of wounds Napoleon abandoned plan to invade Britain Battle of Austerlitz Third Coalition Austria, Portugal, Russia Remobilizing 150,000 troops At Ulm in Bavaria 20,000 Austrian troops surrender Coincided with Trafalgar Casualities and losses at Austerlitz France 70,000 troops 1300 dead 6900 wounded 573 captured Allies 80.000 troops 15,000 dead or wounded 12,000 captured 180 guns lost Treaty of Pressburg 1805 Austria out of the war Austria lost all Italian territories Lost some south German states that were given to Prussia because Prussia had aligned with France. French-Prussian alliance would not last long. War with Prussia and Russia Confederation of the Rhine 1805 Ended the Holy Roman Empire Threatened Prussia Frederick William III Alexander I Prussia aligned with Russia Napoleon defeated Prussia October 1806 Treaty of Tilsit (1807) Battle of Friedland 1807 Tsar Alexander sues for peace Frederick William waits near shore Prussia lost precious territory and half its population Russia recognized French dominance in central Europe Tsar Alexander and Napoleon Negotiate Treaty of Tilsit, July 1807 Napoleonic Empire (3 levels) Annexed Territory Satellite (client) States Allied States Continental System Mercantilist Empire Attempt to starve out Britain Spanish Problem King Joseph (Napoleon's brother) Uprisings Peninsular Campaign V. How to Lose an Empire Empire at its Height 1810 Divorced Josephine Married Marie Louis (Hapsburg) Heir Napoleon II Made part of French Empire 1809 Pius VII threatened excommunication Arrest of Pope Pius VII 1812 Outraged Catholics across Europe Papal States Invasion of Russia Russian business hated Continental System Russians hated Napoleon Russians quit Continental System 1810 Invasion 1812 Michael Kutozov Retreat Battle of Bordino, September 1812 Russia--42,000 casualties out of 112,000 France and allies--58,000 September 14--Napoleon entered Moscow Moscow deserted and burned Alexander won't make peace Napoleon has to retreat Retreat from Russia Russian troops harass from the rear Nieman River 40,000 left out of original 600,000 Return to Paris to build new Army Battle of Nations (1813-1814) Russia, Austria, Prussia Napoleon defeated at Leipzig (October 1813) Peace Negotiations Napoleon would not agree to terms Invasion of France Robert Castlereaugh (British) "20 years of war" March 31, 1814 Attempted suicide Elba Exile Napoleon on the loose Escape March 1815 Amassed a new army March to Paris Louis XVIII fled (brother of Louis XVI) 100 days March 20-July 8, 1815 Battle of Waterloo Seventh Coalition Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, etc. Wellington (British) Waterloo VI. Conclusion Napoleon the Realist New how to use power Dreamed of greatness Not part of the Old Regime or the new Reckless in pursuit of his own glory Used Enlightenment to reform But didn't believe people could govern themselves Napoleon the Romantic Napoleon the Foreigner Last Enlightened Despot ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2009 for the course HIS 1307 taught by Professor Gawrich during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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