Unformatted text preview: The Scientific Revolution I. Introduction--Quote from McKay, p. 571 "Most people are not philosophers, but they nevertheless have a basic outlook on life, a more or less coherent worldview. At the risk of oversimplification, one may say that the worldview of medieval and early modern Europe was primarily religious and theological. Not only did Christian or Jewish teachings form the core of people's spiritual and philosophical beliefs, but religious teachings also permeated all the rest of human thought and activity. Political theory relied on the divine right of kings, for example, and activities ranging from marriage and divorce to eating habits and hours of business were regulated by churches and religious doctrines." (McKay, Buckler, et. al.) Quote continued "In the course of the eighteenth century, this religious and theological world-view underwent a fundamental transformation among the European upper and comfortable classes. Economically secure and increasingly well educated, these privileged groups of pre-industrial Europe often came to see the world primarily in secular and scientific terms. And while few individuals abandoned religious beliefs altogether, the role of churches and religious thinking in earthly affairs and in the pursuit of knowledge was substantially reduced. Among many in the aristocracy and solid middle classes, a new critical, scientific, and very modern world-view took shape." (McKay, Buckler, et. al.) Questions to Consider Why did this momentous change occur? How did this new worldview affect the way people thought about society and human relations? What impact did this new way of thinking have on political developments and monarchical absolutism? II. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) II. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1963) 1. Paradigm 2. Anomalies 3. Paradigm Shift III. The Copernican Revolution Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies Copernicus--The Problem/Anomaly Retrograde Epicycles motion of planets Copernicus Solution to Retrograde Motion Reject geocentrism--Earth at center Adopt Heliocentrism--Sun at the center of solar system Other anomalies appeared Kepler Kepler's Modern Defense of Copernicus Three Laws of Planetary Motion 1. planets orbit the sun in ellipses 2. they do not orbit at uniform speeds 3. the time it takes them to orbit is related directly to their distance from the sun. IV. Galileo d. 1642 IV. Galileo d. 1642 Challenging Aristotle -Induction v. Deduction -Galileo's Controlled Experiments -Body in Motion IV. Galileo d. 1642 Empirical Proof -Telescope -Discovered 4 of the moons of Jupiter. Proving Copernicus Correct Galileo d. 1642 Galileo and the Inquisition -Tried for Heresy (1633) A Word about the Warfare Model for Religion and Science -Theologians on both sides of the debates -Scientists on both sides -Historians of science have refuted the warfare model Proving Copernicus Correct Galileo d. 1642 Galileo' Two books--Nature and the Bible "It is most pious to say and most prudent to take for granted that Holy Scripture can never lie. . . .I think that in disputes about natural phenomena one must begin not with the authority of scriptural passages but with sensory experience and necessary demonstrations. For the holy Scripture and nature derive equally from the godhead, the former as the dictation of the Holy Spirit and the latter as the most obedient executrix of God's orders.... III. Proving Copernicus Correct Galileo d. 1642 Galileo's Two Books--Nature and the Bible "However, by this I do not wish to imply that one should not have the highest regard for passages of Holy Scripture; indeed, after becoming certain of some physical conclusions, we should use these as very appropriate aids to the correct interpretation of Scripture and to the investigation of the truths they must contain, for they are most true and agree with demonstrated truths....I do not think one has to believe that the same God who has given us senses, language, and intellect would want to set aside the use of these and give us by other means the information we can acquire with them, so that we would deny our senses and reason even in the case of those physical conclusions which are placed before our eyes and intellect by our sensory experiences or by necessary demonstrations." V. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 Weaknesses -Rejected Copernicus -Misunderstood Galileo -Underestimated Math -Was a corrupt politician; stripped of his office for taking bribes; died in disgrace. V. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 Inductive Method 1. Diagnose the intellectual clutter and leave it behind. .i.e. don't assume 2. Sift facts for a preliminary hypothesis.
.The hypothesis is not something that has to be true, but something you will test in order to see if it is true. 3. Experiment--Test, refine, observe to see if the hypothesis is true 4. Reason from the particular to the general .In other words, after observing particular phenomena many times, draw general conclusions. .Just the opposite of Aristotle's deduction. 5. Divide learning--Recognize that theology has its sphere and has its. religion VI. Descartes 1596-1650 VI. Descartes 1596-1650
Discourse on Method 1637--Attacks Deduction but retains it Cogito Ergo Sum " I think therefore I am" -Descartes at McDonalds VII. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Isaac Newton if he lived in the 80s VII. Newton (1642-1727)
1. Background Eccentric Precocious -Made virtually all of his discoveries by age 24. -Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge by age 27. Halley and Newton 1687
.Principia (1687) Knighted by Queen Anne in 1705
-State Burial (1727) VII. Newton (1642-1727)
1. His Minor (Major) Discoveries Optics -Color in Light Tides and Equinoxes -Gravitational pull of the moon causes tides. Reflector Telescope III. Newton (1642-1727)
1. Newton's Phases in his physics Started with Kepler/Descartes-- Mathematical/deductive Move to Galileo/Bacon--Inductive Adaptation and Synthesis VII. Newton (1642-1727)
4. Gravity--The Key VII. Newton (1642-1727)
1. Newton's Laws of Motion Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion + Galileo's Laws of Terrestrial Motion = 1. Body in motion tends to stay in motion 2. force=mass X acceleration 3. "for every action..." These laws applied everywhere in the universe The Laws of Nature Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687)--Principia Implications of Newton
1. Laws of Nature .Nature is not haphazard. .It is regular and predictable. .We can rely on them. ...
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