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Unformatted text preview: Battle of Bordino, September 1812 Russia--42,000 casualties out of 112,000 France and allies--58,000 September 14--Napoleon entered Moscow Moscow deserted and burned Alexander won't make peace Napoleon has to retreat Retreat from Russia Russian troops harrass from the rear Nieman River 40,000 left out of original 600,000 Return to Paris to build new Army Battle of Nations (18131814) Russia, Austria, Prussia Napoleon defeated at Leipzig (October 1813) Peace Negotiations Invasion of France Robert Castlereaugh (British) Napoleon would not agree to terms Exile "20 years of war" March 31, 1814 Attempted suicide Elba Napoleon on the loose Escape March 1815 Amassed a new army March to Paris Louis XVIII fled ( brother of Louis XVI) 100 days March 20July 8, 1815 Battle of Waterloo Seventh Coalition Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, etc. Wellington (British) St. Helena Waterloo Longwood House, St. Helena Napoleon at St. Helena The Concert of Europe 18151848 I. Introduction to Concert of Europe Period of calm, conservative reaction The Age of Metternich No major wars in Europe Principle of enlightened selfinterest II. The Congress of Vienna (1814 1815) Starts the Concert The Significance of the Vienna Settlement Peace of Westphalia (1648) Peace of Utrecht (1713) Peace of Paris (1763) Peace of Versailles (1919) "high society and low diplomacy A Lavish Affair Robert Castlereaugh d. 1822Britain "not to collect trophies, but to bring peace." No more dictators like Napolean Balance of Power II. The Congress of Vienna: Principle Actors and What Each Wanted II. The Congress of Vienna: Principle Actors and What Each Wanted Charles Tallyrand d. 1838France Prevent the emasculation of France II. The Congress of Vienna: Principle Actors and What Each Wanted Clemens von Metternich d. 1859-- Austria Apostle of Conservatism Revolution as disease Most influential The Age of Metternich Karl von Hardenberg d. 1822--Prussia Deaf--played small part Frederick William III
Subservient to Alexander II. The Congress of Vienna: Principle Actors and What Each Wanted II. The Congress of Vienna: Principle Actors and What Each Wanted Tsar Alexander I d. 1825--Russia Wanted the lead role Poland Challenged Metternich to a duel Two Principles the Congress Opposed: Nationalism Unleashed by French Revolution Poet Goethe Threat to Austrian Empire Threat to ruling aristocrats No member of middle class (bourgeoisie) at Vienna Liberalism III. The Three Questions and How the Congress Dealt With Them Question OneWhat To Do With France Two Treaties First Treat with France Moderate 1792 borders Savoy German territory Austrian Netherlands 100 Days Second Treaty with France 1790 borders--Lost territory 700 million Franc indemnity 5 year minimum occupation by allied forces (1818) Harsh, but still not too bad for France Tallyrand had done well Question TwoBoundaries of Europe and who would rule Metternich's Four Principles: Legitimacy Encirclement of France Compensation Balance of Power Legitimacy Who was legitimate ruler before Napoleon? France and Spain--Bourbons German Confederation No more Holy Roman Empire Encirclement of France Sometimes overrode legitimacy Austrian Netherlands given to Dutch Would become Belgium (1831) Prussia given territory on Rhine Switzerland became independent Piedmont given to Sardinia Bourbons restored in Spain Ferdinand VII Compensation (for those who gave up something) Russia got Finland Sweden got Norway Britain got South Africa Question ThreeContainment of Revolutionary Ideals Quadruple AllianceAustria, Prussia, Russia, Britain Quintuple Alliance--France joined in 1818 Balance of Power Nations would work in concert to insure that no one had an imbalance of power This concept had emerged following the ThirtyYears War and was reasserted at the Congress of Vienna IV. Significance of Congress Triumph of Conservatism Ignored nationalism and liberalism Perhaps a mistake Created Concert of Europe Succeeded in suppressing most revolutions IV. Significance of Congress
Compare Metternich and Kissinger: Metternich "I was right, if only they had listened to me." Kissinger "The longer I am out of office, the more infallible I appear to myself." V. The Concert Greek Revolution 18211830 The one revolution the concert supported Why? The problem with supporting the Greek Revolution?? France Louis XVIII 18151824 Moderate Constitutional monarch Charles X 18241830 Reactionary Bring back L'ancien Regime' July Ordinances 1830 Dissolved legislature Censored press Restricted voting rights July Revolution 1830 Paris revolted Charles abdicated V. The Concert Louis Philippe (18301848) "King of the French People" New Constitution Concert unable to stop it. France Under Louis Phillipe The July Monarchy and the Revolution of 1848 Bourgeois power Colonial expansion in Africa Industrial revolution at home Voting limited to propertied interests Industrial proletariat Uprisings and assassination attempts Economic depression Calls for electoral reform France in 1848 Political Banquets Guizot moves in them "To the streets" Louis abdicated--February 24 February Revolution Provisional Government National Workshops Guaranteed Wage Economic rights Louis Blanc Socialism Put proletarians to work Threw open the Franchise Electorate went from 250,000 to 9 million France in 1848 Conservative Legislature Closed National Workshops June Days Class Warfare Barricades General Louis Cavaignac bourgeoisie vs. proletariat 1500 killed in 4 days of fighting Smashed Barricades Government fell apart New Constitution The Second Republic December Elections Moderate Montesquieu's checks and balances Set elections for December Louis Napoleon 1851 Coup Napoleon III--Emperor of France End of Second Republic VI. 1848 (Crazy Year) in Other Countries GermanyThe Frankfurt Assembly Frederick William IV, King of Prussia Hungarians, Czechs, Italians All desired their own state Austrian (Hapsburg) Empire Italy VI. 1848 in Other Countries Why These Uprisings Failed? Lack of Leadership Red Scare
Fear of socialism No Republican Tradition Smaller Middle Class Failure to embrace liberalism and nationalism VII. Conclusion: Something New Something New--Socialism The Turning point Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels Communist Manifesto (1848) At which history refused to turn Nationalism and liberalism thwarted one last time Concert in its last movement ...
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