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Unformatted text preview: The French Revolution Liberte! Egalite! Fraternite! V. The Revolt of the Nobility
Charles Calonne 17831787 Replaced Necker Calonne's Methods Lavish spending Good for credit More borrowing 653 million livres (17831789) Debt Service--1/2 of govt. revenues by mid1780s Reorganized Tax system Loosening government controls on economy Physiocrat methods Desire for legitimation of his methods Calling an Estates General Calonne's desire to have some body of government give his policies legitimacy led to the calling of the Estates General The Estates General had not met since 1614 Calling the Estates General would precipitate the Revolution I. The Debate Over the Estates General Doubling the Third Estate?? Voting by head?? Necker Recalled in 1788 Revokes Ban on political clubs Lafayette, Tallyrand, Mirabeau 90% nobles Society of Thirty (sixty??) Mirabeau Party Animal before 1788 Jailed at request of his father Found purpose in the Revolution Society of Thirty--"A conspiracy of decent folk." "War on privilege, that's my motto." I. The Debate Over the Estates General The DecisionDouble the Third Estates General would decide on voting by head The Nobles' Response to Doubling the Third Clung to privilege Sieyes d. 1836--"What is the Third Estate?" What is the Third Estate? Everything What has the Third Estate been until now? Nothing What does the Third Estate ask? To be something. Should declare itself the National Assembly Preparing for Estates General Electoral Assemblies
First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Cahiers Grievance lists Most dramatic democratic process in Europe II. The Meeting of the Estates General Pomp and Circumstance May 5, 1789 Costumes Necker's speech First Estate--vestments Second Estate--silk, swords, gold waistcoats, plumed hats Third Estate--black Voting up to First and Second Estates Debate over Voting by Headsix weeks II. The Meeting of the Estates General Third Estate's Appeal Roll CallJune 12 A few clergy Come Over Supported by Mirabeau and liberal nobles June 17--Declaration Clergy vote to join--June 19 The National Assembly The Tennis Court Oath June 20--Doors locked Adjourned to tennis court Swore an oath Will never disperse until the nation has a constitution Clergy join--June 22 3 nobles join The Monarchy's Response Tried to compromise--too late King pronounced himself the only representative of the people More clergy and nobles join National Assembly Troops sent to clear the meeting hall Mirabeau "Go to hell." The Monarchy Capitulates June 27 King order nobles (Second Estate) to join The National Assembly had won The Storming of the Bastille The Storming of the Bastille July 11--Necker dismissed Troops enter city Fear of a crackdown July 14 Proletarians join the Revolution Bastille surrendered Peasants get involved Ransacked manor houses Nobles flee Death of manorialism The Great Fear Le Grande Peur October Days March from Paris to Versailles Women Liberal nobles "We have the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's son." III. From Revolution to the Reign of Terror The Rise of Jacobin Clubs Jacobins Girondins Maximillian Robespierre d. 1794 III. From Revolution to the Reign of Terror The Flight of the Royal Family June 20, 1791 The King or Revolution Conditions At the End of 1791 Constitutional Monarchy Emigration Army in disarray Rumors of foreign attack IV. The End of the Monarchy Jacobins rally people against monarchy Arrest of Royal Family, August 1792 September Massacres 1000 dead in 6 days Election of 1792 More radical legislature Abolition of the Monarchy Trial and Execution of Royal Family What to do with the royal family? Girondins--imprisonment Jacobins--death Vote on January 14, 1793 380 to 310 January 21, 1793 Louis to the guillotine Reign of Terror, July 1793July 1794 Foreign War Britain, Spain, Netherlands, Austria, Prussia Committee on Public Safety
Girondins expelled Jacobins in charge Law of Suspects Reign of Terror million arrested 17,000 death sentences 10,000 executed without trial 25,00040,000 killed "The blood of aristocrats. Let the dogs lick it up." Execution of Robespierre V. Thirmidorian Reaction Robespierre executed, July 1794 Repeal of Law of Suspects Freedom for Girondins Dissolution of Committee of Public Safety Jacobin Clubs Closed New Constitution 1795 Directory Opposition to Constitution 30,000 march on Paris VI. ConclusionEnter Napoleon "wiff of grapeshot" ...
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