Unformatted text preview: The Peace of Versailles I. Introduction Charles Callan Tansill: "In the long list of American presidents there is no one who was a more sincere pacifist than the one who led us into war in April 1917." Woodrow Wilson (19131921) Evangelical Christian Steeped in pacifism Idealistic Wilson's purpose Fashion a peace plan that would justify the war i.e. Bring some good out of the war Justice for all and punishment for none. Avert war in the future II. Wilson's Activities and his Plan Wilson Goes Abroad First president to travel abroad while in office. Hailed as a messiah by Europeans Wilson's Mistakes Appointed only Democrats to U.S. peace party Urged Americans to elect Democrats so the peace proceedings would go well. Underestimated the European diplomats Wilson's Peace Plan: The Fourteen Points Freedom of the seas Self determination Settlement of colonial claims Open treaties Point Fourteen: League of Nations III. The Big Four and what they Wanted Georges Clemenceau France Old Tiger guarantees Forever weaken Germany Restitution, reparation, Shot during peace David Lloyd George Britain "Hang the Kaiser" "Squeeze the German lemon
until the pip squeaks." Vittorio Orlando Italy Spoils of War Secret Treaty of London Wilson didn't even know Woodrow Wilson Idealism vs. realpolitik "an innocent abroad" Point 14 to retain League of Nations Compromised all others IV. The Final Treaty Positives League of Nations Mandate System Article 231--War Guilt Clause Germany--Full Responsibility for the war Germans balked Allied maneuvers across Rhine German signed Carving Up Germany AlsaceLorraine to France DansigKdansk to the League Saar Basin to the League Six Million Germans carved out of Germany 25,000 square miles German Reparations Wilson wanted none Armistice promise Responsible only for civilian property Total set at 33 billion More than Germany would ever be able to pay Disregard for Russia No one trusted the new Communist Government Expected Russian government to fall Russia ignored V. Wilson's Problems Opposition to the Treaty Back Home Wilson's Response Nationwide speaking tour Collapsed in Colorado Suffered a stroke Wilson's problems back home
Senate refused to ratify treaty Declared war over by joint resolution Wilson would not sign the resolution Warren Harding (19211923) Signed resolution 1921 U.S. never ratified the treaty Never joined League of Nations VI. Conclusion--The Bitter Fruit of Victory Britain Let bygones be bygones Italy Relatively unscathed by war France Brief European Domination Angry--secret treaties abrogated Withdrew Mussolini--fascist dictator Alliances to encircle Germany U.S. extreme isolationism What about Germany? Germany Humiliation Bitterness Financially devastated Looking for a national savior ...
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