World War II (1939-1945)

World War II (1939-1945) - World War II (1939-1945) I....

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Unformatted text preview: World War II (1939-1945) I. Similarities and Differences with WWI Both started with alliances Britain and France Germany and Central Europe Germany on Two Fronts Won by Grand Alliance (Allies) Unforseen and Unintended Consequences WWI--Russian Revolution and American involvement WWII--Soviet domination of Eastern Europe Differences WWII much larger WWI--10 million dead; 21 million injured WWII--40 million dead; 25 million civilians; 80 million wounded WWII more global WWII more mobile and fast moving Tanks and airplanes replace the machine gun and shovel Differences WWII more ideological Liberal democracy + Communism vs. Fascism France collapsed instead of Russia Revolution came to China instead of Russia Ended with Partition of Germany WWII ended with a bang No Woodrow Wilson Different political effects WWI ended with a Whimper Absence of idealism in peacemaking II. Aggression and Appeasement 1. Hitler's Early Period (1933-1935) Took Germany out of League of Nations Rearmed Germany France Alarmed Formed Alliance with Soviet Union Saar Basin Plebescite--95% voted to rejoin Germany 2. 1936-1939 Rhineland 1936 Hitler set in troops France did not resist People of Rhineland welcomed Germans Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) Fascists seeking overthrow of Spanish Republic Fascist receive help from Italy U.S., Britain, France stayed neutral Anti-fascist mercenaries Ernest Hemingway--For Whom the Bell Tolls Fascists (Francisco Franco) won Hitler and Mussolini come together Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) Rome-Berlin Axis Anschluss (1938) Union of Germany and Austria March 11--German troops enter First step of unifying all Germans Sudeten: Germany majorities in pink Sudeten (1938) Czechoslovakia Munich Conference (September) Mussolini, Hitler, Neville Chamberlain (Britain) "Peace in Our Time" Appeasement Winston Churchill 1939 March 14--Hitler took the rest of Czech Mussolini took Albania Pact of Steel Hitler-Stalin Pact September--Poland No appeasement this time Britain and France declared war U.S. Response thus far Neutrality Acts (1936-1938) III. Two Years of Axis Triumph (1939-1941) End of the liberal West??? Poland (1939) Not much Britain and France could do Denmark and Norway (1940) Fall of France Luxembourg--No resistance Netherlands--6 days Britain and France Move into Belgium Maginot Line Ardennes Forest Britain escapes Belgium France alone Fall of France Five days of Fighting (June 5-10) Disorderly retreat Surrender (June 17, 1940) One of the worst military debacles in history Occupation of North Vichy France in South Marshall Petain 2 million French prisoners Underground resistance Charles DeGaulle--underground resistance Britain Alone (1940-1941) Hitler--"Surrender or be annihilated." Nazi Advantages 150 battle-tested divisions; Britain had 1 British Navy was strong, but British Airforce Winston Churchill Churchill July 1940--became Prime Minister "We shall fight on the beaches; we shall fight on the landing grounds; we shall fight in the fields and in the streets; we shall fight in the hills; we will never surrender." Battle of Britain (1940) Germany poised for invasion Must first destroy RAF (Royal Air Force) British 2:1 shoot down ration August--Germany switched to daytime bombing of London October--Night time bombing Winter--threat of invasion is past Britain has won the Battle of Britain Hitler Attacks Soviet Union June 22, 1941 December--In sight of Moscow Hitler announced victory Bomb Pearl Harbor Japanese response Soviet Winter (a'la' Napoleon) Soviet Union alive and U.S. in the war Italy Egypt--Suez Canal Greece and Albania Britain bombs southern Italy Hitler has to send aid to Italy Mussolini sorry he had aligned with Hitler Nazi Empire Prisoners used as slave labor Racial heirarchy Germans Those most like Germans--Scandavians Slavs Poles Jews Killing of Jews Auschwitz Right--slave labor Left--gas chamber Auschwitz Starving at Mauthausen Camp The Soccer Game Tadeusz Borowski, This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen Mass Grave at Bergen Belsen IV. Three Theaters of War (19421945) 1. Russia Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942-February 1943) Heroic Russian Stand 1.5 million casualties Germans forced to start slow retreat April 1945--Russians enter Berlin 9 million soldiers involved in Battle of Russia 2. Mediterranean and Europe North Africa: Operation Torch (1942-1943) Allies German Dwight D. Eisenhower General Montgomery George Patton Rommel (Desert Fox) French North Africa Africa Korps Surrender at Tunisia (May 1943 Invasion of Italy Allied invasion--Summer 1943 Mussolini resigned (July 1943) 75 miles from Rome by end of 1943 Eisenhower was transferred to Britain Operation Overlord (Normandy Invasion) D-Day Invasion of France (June 6, 1944) 200,000 troops Liberated France by end of year Battle of the Bulge (Germany's last counter) Push into Germany Meeting Russians in Berlin Germany Surrenders (May 8, 1945) Hitler and others commit suicide Normandy American and Russian Troops meet at Elbe River 3. Pacific General Douglas MacArthur Island Hopping Strategy Admiral Chester Nimitz Leyte Gulf (Phillipines) Guadalcanal Many Famous Battles Japan refused to surrender Allies plan invastion Atomic Bombs Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) Russia Declared War on Japan (August 8) Nagasaki (August 9) VJ Day Japanese surrender--August 14 V. War Death Estimates Russia--23 million More than 13% of population More than 10% of population Germany--7. 2 million Poland--4.5 million France--567,000 Britain--450,000 Europe Total--35 million Japan--2.7 million U.S.--418,000 Less than 1% of population Europe in Ruins WWI Interlude Depression Rise of Fascism WWII Many wondered if Western Civ would ever recover ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2009 for the course HIS 1307 taught by Professor Gawrich during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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