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Unformatted text preview: World War I (1914-1918) I. Introduction Who was At Fault? "A war no one wanted and everyone accepted." History's stupidest war. II. The Road to War (1870-1914) 1. Franco-Prussian War 1870-71 Germans smashed the French French desire revenge Germans annexed Alsace-Lorraine 2. Dual Alliance 1879-Germany and Austria Germany and Austria (1879) Stop Russian expansion 3. Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, and Italy (1882) Aimed at French 4. Franco-Russian Alliance 1892 German decided not to renew treaty with Russia France already hostile to Germany France and Russia aligned against German 5. Boer War 1899-1902 British try to subjugate Dutch Farmers (Boers) in South Africa Germany Sided with the Boers (why?) Germany and Britain almost go to war Britain seeks security from Germany 6. Anglo-French Entente 1904 France and Britain against Germany Notice the reversal here Irony Germany and British ruling families were cousins 7. Russo-Japanese War 1904 Russian shown to be weak They look for alliance 8. Anglo-Russian Entente Britain and Russia against Germany 9. Triple Entente Anglo-French Entente + Franco-Russian Alliance + Anglo-Russian Entente = Britain, France, and Russia 10. Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina 1908 Annexed by Austria Serbia outraged They fear Austria will take all of Balkans Serbia looks to Russia Russia backs down Austria looks to German 11. Tripolitan War 1911-1912 Italy seized and kept Libya Made Turks look weak--er Others began to pick off parts of Ottoman Empire 12. First Balkan War 1912-1913 Bulgaria, Serbs, Greeks against Turks Turks are defeated Victors argue over spoils of War Leads to Second Balkan War 13. Second Balkan War 1913 Bulgaria against Greeks and Serbs Bulgaria looks to Russia Russia backs down 14. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand - June 24, 1914 G. Princip (Serbian nationalist) Austria sent ultimatim to Serbia
Told them to stay out of Bosnia-Herz Germany backs Austria Serbia looked to Russia Russia would not back down again Lord Grey, August 3, 1914: "The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime." III. Real Causes Fundamental State Antipathies Franco-German Anglo-German Austrian-Russian Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente Japan fighting to keep part of China Britain wanted to keep Boers (diamond mines) Many exceptions to economic interpretation Great Entangling Alliance System Economic Imperialism III. Real Causes Nationalism Especially in Balkans Ideology and morality took a backseat Masses hot for war Glorification of military Psychological Reasons Militarism The sides in the War
Allies Britain France Russia Italy (after 1915) Japan U.S. Serbia, Romania, Greece Central Powers Germany Austria Turkey Italy (until 1915) Bulgaria IV. The Key Battles Germany attacked France First Battle of the Marne The Western Front (Nov 1914 ff) Trench Warfare Dig in Deep No man's land 150-500 yards Artillery Fire Over the Top Take the other side's trenches New Weapons Poison gas Hand grenades Trench mortars Tanks Airplanes and Zeppelins Bloody Battles Verdun (Feb-Dec 1916) France 163,000 died (400,000 casualties) 143,000 died (300,000) Germans advanced 4 miles in 6 months Germany Result Somme (July-Nov 1916) British shelled German lines for a week Over the top German lines hold Months of fighting Losses at Somme
Allies Germany 620,000 dead, wounded, 450,000 dead, wounded, missing captured 100 tanks 782 aircraft Cemetery (Somme) American Entry 1917 Central powers doing well (controlled Balkans) Russia quit the war (Revolution at home) Sinking of Lucitania 1915 Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) April 1917 14,000 American troops (symbolic) General Pershing asked for 1 million 1918--Masses of American troops Tide begins to turn End of the War 1918 Germany last ditched effort (March 1918) 40 miles from Paris Pushed Germany back to 1914 Bulgaria--September 1918 Turks--October Austria-Hungary--November 3 Second Battle of the Marne (July 1918) Central Powers Quit Germany Sues for Peace November 11, 1918 Total War Casualties
Allies 5.1 million dead 12.8 million wounded 4.1 million missing 52.3% casualty rate France lost 15% of young men Central Powers 3.4 million dead 8.4 million wounded 3.6 million missing 67.4% casualty rate Germany lost 15% of young men In Flander's Field In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved, and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields. -- Lt.-Col. John McCrae ...
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