This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Reds: Russia (19051939) I. Introduction
1917--Cultural Literacy date First Marxist Revolution Importance for Cold War (19471989) Where we left Russia last time Peter the Great (16891725) Catherine the Great (17621796) westernization Halfway Enlightenment No Renaissance, no Reformation, half way Enlightenment Russia in 19th Century Autocratic government Hotbed of radicalism II. Revolution of 1905 4 Events that led to the Revolution of 1905 1. Reactionary Policies of Tsars Alexander III (18811894) Nicolas II (18941917) Temporary Regulations Russification of nonRussians in Empire Crackdown on radical newspapers Control of Universities 2. Economy Fastest growing in Europe in 1890s Misery persisted 8% per year Peasant problems Growing proletariat Growing middle class (bourgeoisie) Government not responsive 3. RussoJapanese War 190405 Russian unprepared Nicolas bore stigma Russia not a strong as she had seemed 4. Growth of Radical Parties Social Revolutionary party Social Democrats (Marxist) Terrorist Bolsheviks Mensheviks Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday (January) Ten months of violence Georgii Gapon "...then we have no Tsar." Opposition broadens Nationwide Strike (October) October Manifesto (Nicolas) "Dress rehearsal for 1917" Strikes, assassinations, violence III. Revolutions of 1917 19051917 Tremendous Revolution Activity Reactionary policies Russia in World War I (19141917) Nicolas Takes command of war effort Leaves Alexandra in charge at home Rasputin d. 1916 Rasputin d. 1916 Alexandra and Rasputin Healing of Alexei (1905) More healing Women Assassination (1916) February Revolution (March 811) Demonstration in St. Petersburg Troops joined the demonstrators Nicolas Abdicated (March 15) Duma set up provisional government Swift, bloodless, liberal revolution Western powers recognize the new govt. Nicolas after Abdication Kerensky Government Alexander Kerensky Liberal reforms "persuader in chief" Supreme Soviet (June) V.I. Lenin d. 1924 Leader of Bolsheviks Exile Returned to Russia in April Led Marxist revolution "by virtue of pure intellect" Marxism Dialectic (Hegel d. 1831) Marx found Hegel Standing on his head History is the outworking of economic forces Process continues Withering away of the state "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" "workers of the world unite" Thesis + antithesis = synthesis Synthesis is the new thesis History is a reflection of Spirit Thesis + antithesis = synthesis Bourgeoisie + proletariat = state socialism Lenin's modifications of Marx
1. Made a place for peasants 2. Argued that the Bolshevik party could carry out the revolution No need to wait for the growth of the proletariat October Revolution Bolshevik Troops occupy St. Petersburg Kerensky government fell III. From October Revolution to Death of Lenin Constituent Assembly 1918 Elected in fall 1917 Met in January 1918 Bolsheviks had 170 out of 707 seats Red (Bolshevik) Army broke up the assembly Last popularly elected body in Russia until late 1980s before October revolution Nearly all revolutionary groups recognized it as the legitimate government White Army Opposed Bolsheviks Allies supported Whites Civil War (19181922) Side note Bolsheviks had 23,000 out of 170 million Red (Bolshevik) Army Led by Trotsky Dedicated Marxist Highly ideological Civil War (19181922) Reds v. Whites No one believed Reds would win Whites almost took Moscow Tide Turned Reds won USSR--Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Soviet Union Why did the Reds win? Red Army Allied Intervention Backfired Leadership Dedicated, disciplined, unified Nationalism (Mother Russia) Trotsky d. 1940 Lenin Josef Stalin d. 1953 Lenin and the Civil War (19181922 War Communism Total government control of economy Economic Catastrophe (19201921) Drought in Ukraine Industry at a Standstill People starving 20 million Russians perished (19171921) Economic output 20% of what it had been before WWI Peasants stopped planting Strikes and uprisings against communist rule Exchange rate From 2 rubles to 1 dollar--1914 1200 to 1--1921 62% reduction in cultivated acreage New Economic Policy (NEP) Lenin's response Capitalist, free market activity Bolsheviks did not relinquish control of government By 1927--Industry and agriculture doing better Who would replace Lenin Lenin died in 1924 Trotsky or Stalin? Legacy of will and determination Josef Stalin d. 1953 IV. Stalin's Rise to Power From Tiflis, Georgia Russian Orthodox Seminary (1894) Joined Bolsheviks Organized strikes, demonstrations, and fundraising (i.e. bank robbery) Exiled during Revolution of 1905 Met Lenin in Finland General Secretary of Communist Party (1922) Leon Trotsky d. 1940 Pure Marxism Headed Red Army Lenin did not trust Stalin Stalin forced Trotsky out of party Assassinated in Mexico (1940) V. Stalin's Economics FiveYear Plans Ended the New Economic Policy Complete economic planning Food Rationed High Taxes Stalin's First FiveYear Plan: 1928 1932 Clothing Scarce New Industries 19281929--The Real Russian Revolution Chemical, automobile, agricultural machinery Collectivization of Agriculture Kolkhoz (collectivized farms) Kulac Resistance Imprisonment and Exile for Kulacs Engineered Famine Stats Burning of neighborhoods and farms 1928--5 million Kulacs 1933--150,000 Results of First FiveYear Plan 5 million people died Will of peasants broken Economic progress, but goals not fully met Second FiveYear Plan began Soviet Union in 1939 3rd in the world in Industry behind United States and Germany VI. Stalin's Politics Socialism in One Country Marxist Doctrine Lenin's modification Trotsky Stalin Worldwide revolution Build socialism in Soviet Union Ignored most other revolutions The Great Purges (19361938) Assassination of Sergei Kirov (1936) Stalin's conspiracy theory Show Trials Widespread arrests and Confessions Death toll Zinoviev and Kamanev 30 or so others Probably millions The Great Purge
Quote from Russian historian (Fainsod): "The arrest of an important figure was followed by the seizure of the entourage which surrounded him. The apprehension of members of the entourage led to the imprisonment of their friends and acquaintances. The endless chain of involvements and associations threatened to encompass entire strata of Soviet society. . . .Whole categories of Soviet citizens found themselves singled out for arrest. . . .The arrests mounted into the millions." Result of the Great Purge Stalin consolidated his power Turned the country into a personal dictatorship Stalin and the Church Control of Russian Orthodox Church Persecution of all others Baptists Jews VII. Conclusion Continuity Difficulty of working out Marxism Stalin's death Was Stalin a Marxist revolutionary or another Russian Tsar Reincarnation of Ivan the Terrible 1953 1985--Mikhail Gorbachev ...
View Full Document