Lecture_01_Fundamentals of Computer Design

Lecture_01_Fundamentals of Computer Design - 5008: Computer...

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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-1 5008: Computer Architecture 5008: Computer 5008: Computer Architecture Architecture Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Fundamentals of Computer Design Computer Design
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-2 1 10 100 1000 10000 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Performance (vs. VAX-11/780) 25%/year 52%/year ??%/year Processor Performance VAX : ~25%/year 1978 to 1986 RISC + x86: ~52%/year 1986 to 2002 vs. VAX 11/780, as measured by the SPECint benchmark
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-3 UniProcessor Performance • Early 1970s, mainframes and minicomputers – 25%~30% growth per year in performance • Late 1970, microprocessor – 35% growth per year in performance • Early 1980s, Reduced Instruction Set Computer ( RISC ) architectures – 2 critical performance techniques • ILP (initially through pipelining and later through multiple instruction issue) •C a c h e – 50% growth per year in performance • 1998~2000, relative performance –B y t e c h n o l
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-4 CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-5 RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-6 Preview • Two key reasons to rapid improvement in computer performance since the mid-1980s – advances in the technology – innovation in computer design
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-7 Facts • Since 2002, processor performance has dropped from about 50% to about 20% per year – High power dissipation – Little ILP left to exploit efficiently – Almost unchanged memory latency • Faster uniprocessor or Multiple processors?
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-8 Outline Computer Science at a crossroads Computer Architecture vs. Instruction Set Arch. What Computer Architecture brings to table?
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CA Lecture01 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 1-9 Old Conventional Wisdom: Power is free, Transistors expensive New Conventional Wisdom: Power wall Power expensive, Transistors free (Can put more on chip than can afford to turn on) Old CW: Sufficiently increasing Instruction Level Parallelism via compilers, innovation (Out-of-order, speculation, VLIW, ) New CW: ILP wall law of diminishing returns on more HW for ILP Old CW: Multiplies are slow, Memory access is fast New CW: Memory wall Memory slow, multiplies fast (200 clock cycles to DRAM memory, 4 clocks for multiply) Old CW: Uniprocessor performance 2X / 1.5 yrs New CW: Power Wall + ILP Wall + Memory Wall = Brick Wall Uniprocessor performance now 2X / 5(?) yrs
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Lecture_01_Fundamentals of Computer Design - 5008: Computer...

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