Lecture_02_Fundamentals of Computer Design_II

Lecture_02_Fundamentals of Computer Design_II - 5008:...

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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-1 5008: Computer Architecture 5008: Computer 5008: Computer Architecture Architecture Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Fundamentals of Computer Design Computer Design
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-2 Review from Last Lecture Computer Architecture >> instruction sets Quantitative Principles of Design 1. Take Advantage of Parallelism 2. Principle of Locality 3. Focus on the Common Case 4. Amdahl s Law 5. The Processor Performance Equation Computer Architecture skill sets are different 5 Quantitative principles of design Quantitative approach to design Solid interfaces that really work Technology tracking and anticipation Computer Science at the crossroads from sequential to parallel computing
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-3 Outline Review Technology Trends: Culture of tracking, anticipating and exploiting advances in technology Careful, quantitative comparisons: 1. Define and quantity power 2. Define and quantity dependability 3. Define, quantity, and summarize relative performance 4. Define and quantity relative cost
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-4 Tracking Technology Performance Trends Drill down into 4 technologies: Disks, Memory, Network, Processors Performance Milestones in each technology Compare for Bandwidth vs. Latency improvements in performance over time Bandwidth (Throughput): number of events per unit time E.g., M bits / second over network, M bytes / second from disk Latency (Response Time): elapsed time for a single event E.g., one-way network delay in microseconds, average disk access time in milliseconds
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-5 Moore s Law: 2X transistors / year Gordon Moore, Electronics, 1965 # on transistors / cost-effective integrated circuit double every N months (12 N 24)
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-6 Feature Technology and Size 150 mm 200 mm 300 mm Wafer 0.35 μ m technology 0.25 μ m technology 0.18 μ m technology 0.13 μ m technology 0.09 μ m technology 0.065 μ m technology 12-Inch 8-Inch 6-Inch When compared to the 0.18-micron process, the new 0.13-micron process results in less than 60 percent the die size and nearly 70 percent improvement in performance The 90-nm process will be manufactured on 300mm wafers NEC devises low-k film for second-generation 65-nm process
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-7 Disks: Archaic vs. Modern Seagate 373453, 2003 15000 RPM (4X) 73.4 GBytes (2500X) Tracks/Inch: 64000 (80X) Bits/Inch: 533,000 (60X) Four 2.5 platters (in 3.5 form factor) Bandwidth: 86 MBytes/sec (140X) Latency: 5.7 ms (8X) Cache: 8 MBytes CDC Wren I, 1983 3600 RPM 0.03 GBytes capacity Tracks/Inch: 800 Bits/Inch: 9550 Three 5.25 platters Bandwidth: 0.6 MBytes/sec Latency: 48.3 ms Cache: none
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CA Lecture02 - fundamentals (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 02-8 Latency Lags Bandwidth (for last ~20 years)
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Lecture_02_Fundamentals of Computer Design_II - 5008:...

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