Lecture 02A-ISA - 1048: Computer Organization Lecture 2...

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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-1 1048: Computer Organization 1048: Computer 1048: Computer Organization Organization Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Instructions: Instructions: Language of the Computer Language of the Computer
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-2 Introduction • Computer language – Words: instructions – Vocabulary: instruction set – Similar for all, like regional dialect? • Design goal of computer language – To find an instruction set that makes it easy to build the hardware and the compiler while maximizing performance and minimizing cost • The chosen instruction set example –MIPS
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-3 Outline A. Instruction Set Architecture, ISA B. MIPS Instructions
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-4 A specification of a standardized programmer-visible interface to hardware , comprised of: A set of instructions instruction types with associated argument fields, assembly syntax, and machine encoding. A set of named storage locations registers memory A set of addressing modes (ways to name locations) Often an I/O interface memory-mapped Instruction Set Architecture, ISA Instruction Set Architecture software hardware High level language code : C, C++, Java, Fortan , Assembly language code: architecture specific statements Machine language code: architecture specific bit patterns compiler assembler
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-5 ISA • How is it represented? –B y a binary format since the hardware understands only bits – Concatenate together binary encoding for instructions, registers, constants, memories • Typical physical blobs are bits, bytes, half-words, words, n-words •O p t i o n s - fixed or variable length formats – Fixed - each instruction encoded in same size field (typically 1 word) – Variable – half-word, whole-word, multiple word instructions are possible
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-6 Processor Model memory processor registers address instructions data FF. ..FF 16 00. ..00 16 instructions & data
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-7 Steps of Executing Instructions in Computer • Instruction Fetch – Fetch instruction form memory • Instruction Decode – Examine instruction to determine • What operation is performed by the instruction • What operands are required, and where the result goes to … • Operand Fetch – Fetch the operands •E x e c u t i o n – Perform the operation on the operands •R e s u l t WriteBack – Write the result to the specified location
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Lecture02A - ISA (cwliu@twins.ee.nctu.edu.tw) 2A-8 ISA has to determine … Instruction set design issues include: Where are operands stored ? registers, memory, stack, accumulator How many explicit operands are there ?
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This note was uploaded on 08/23/2009 for the course DEE 4641 taught by Professor Cwliu during the Fall '08 term at National Chiao Tung University.

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Lecture 02A-ISA - 1048: Computer Organization Lecture 2...

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