Study.Guide+Lectures+2_3

Study.Guide+Lectures+2_3 - BIS2B, Fall 2008 Study Guide...

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BIS2B, Fall 2008 Study Guide Lectures 2 & 3 Sept. 29, Monday AM & PM NB. a. We fell behind a bit in first lecture with the introductions and mechanics, so this study guide will take off assuming the stuff that is in the lecture 1 power point. b. On Mondays, I will write study guides for both the AM and PM lectures. c. We have chosen the Shannon-Weiner (aka Shannon-Weaver) index of diversity, which is closely tied to the measurement of diversity, information, and entropy in science. Google Shannon-Weiner and follow the links to “generative sciences,” where you will find references to neurobiology, genetics, and evolutionary biology. In the Scientific and Philosophical origins paragraph You will find entries on Norbert Weiner and Claude E. Shannon; click on information theory. Then look down the page for our equation (which is used her with an unspecified log function. The quick insight to take away is that the concept of diversity is related to entropy in thermodynamics and biochemistry and to information in computer science and physics. Don’t spend too much time with this, just file it away in your memory banks for future reference. Reading: 52.3 in your text. Supplemental Reading Wikipedia, evapotranspiration (first two paragraphs) Wikipedia, plant production (through terrestrial production) Topic A. More on Biological Diversity. First a review of what we have learned. Q2&3.1. In biotas with roughly equal numbers of species, the highest biological diversity (H’ or similar index) is shown by relative abundance curves that are________________________. a. convex b. concave. c. horizontal d. unclear. e. resolved. Q2&3.2 In biotas with roughly equal numbers of species, the lowest biological diversity (H’ or similar index) is shown by relative abundance curves that are________________________. a. convex 1
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b. concave. c. horizontal d. unclear. e. resolved. Actual studies of biodiversity involve much larger samples than we have taken the laboratory 1. The number of samples is known as the “sample size.” Large sample sizes in studies of biodiversity are necessary for several reasons. a. Most real species are not as obvious as in our example, and lots of samples are necessary to learn what species are present. b. The area of ecological interest is usually much greater than we use in the exercise (You can see that the real island in the photo on page 1.1 actually has many more plants than the diagram on 1.3. The palm tree in the photo reveals that this is a tropical island, the tropics have the highest biological diversity in general, and it is likely that this island would also have many more species that we consider in our simplified example.). Larger areas require more sampling to reveal the spatial spread of species. c. Species are not distributed randomly across the landscape. Rather they are clustered,
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Study.Guide+Lectures+2_3 - BIS2B, Fall 2008 Study Guide...

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