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PHY213_Chapter19_Sec6to10

# PHY213_Chapter19_Sec6to10 - Chapter 19 Magnetism Magnetic...

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Chapter 19 Magnetism

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General Physics Magnetic Fields II Sections 6–10
General Physics Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field Consider a particle moving in an external magnetic field so that its velocity is perpendicular to the field The force is always directed toward the center of the circular path The magnetic force causes a centripetal acceleration, changing the direction of the velocity of the particle

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General Physics Equating the magnetic and centripetal forces: Solving for the radius r: r is proportional to the momentum mv of the particle and inversely proportional to the magnetic field Sometimes called the cyclotron equation r mv qvB F 2 = = qB r = Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field, cont Active Figure: Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field
General Physics The Mass Spectrometer: Separating Isotopes The cyclotron equation can be applied to the process of separating isotopes Singly ionized isotopes are injected into a velocity selector Only those isotopes with velocity v = E/B pass into the deflection chamber—Why? Isotopes travel in different circular paths governed by the cyclotron equation—therefore different mass isotopes separate Active Figure: The Mass Spectrometer qB mv r =

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General Physics Particle Moving in an External Magnetic Field If the particle’s velocity is not perpendicular to the magnetic field, the path followed by the particle is a spiral The spiral path is called a helix Active Figure: A Charged Particle with a Helical Path
General Physics Charged Particles Trapped in the Earth’s Magnetic Field—Auroras Charged particles from the Sun enter the Earth’s magnetic field These particles move in spirals around the lines of magnetic field This causes them to become trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field An aurora is caused by these trapped charged particles colliding with atoms in the upper atmosphere—producing beautiful displays of light

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General Physics Hans Christian Oersted 1777 – 1851 Best known for observing that a compass needle deflects when placed near a wire carrying a current First evidence of a connection between electric and magnetic phenomena
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PHY213_Chapter19_Sec6to10 - Chapter 19 Magnetism Magnetic...

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