2009 sinauer associates inc uncorrected page proofs c

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Unformatted text preview: te apoptosis by controlling the expression or activity of proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. These pathways include DNA damage-induced activation of the tumor suppressor p53, growth factorstimulated activation of PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling, and activation of death receptors by polypeptides that induce programmed cell death. p53, PI 3-kinase, Akt, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Alternative Pathways of Programmed Cell Death: Autophagy and regulated necrosis provide alternatives to apoptosis for induction of programmed cell death. autophagy STEM CELLS AND THE MAINTENANCE OF ADULT TISSUES Proliferation of Differentiated Cells: Most cells in adult animals are arrested in the G0 stage of the cell cycle. A few types of differentiated cells, including skin fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and liver cells are able to resume proliferation as required to replace cells that have been lost because of injury or cell death. Stem Cells: Most differentiated cells do not themselves proliferate but can be replaced via the proliferation of stem cells. Stem cells divide to produce one daughter cell that remains a stem cell...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2009 for the course BIO 315 taught by Professor Steiner during the Spring '08 term at Kentucky.

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