Death signal reaper hid grim iaps initiator and

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Unformatted text preview: or and effector caspases Apoptosis DNA damage ATM Chk2 P P Increased levels of p53 p53 PP PP p53p53 response to growth factor stimulation. These signaling pathways control the fate of a wide variety of cells whose survival is dependent on extracellular growth factors or cell-cell interactions. As already noted, a well-characterized example of programmed cell death in development is provided by the vertebrate nervous system. About 50% of neurons die by apoptosis, with the survivors having received sufficient amounts of survival signals from their target cells. These survival signals are polypeptide growth factors related to nerve growth factor (NGF), which induces both neuronal survival and differentiation by activating a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. Other types of cells are similarly dependent upon growth factors or cell contacts that activate nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases associated with integrins. Indeed, most cells in higher animals are programmed to undergo apoptosis unless cell death is actively suppressed by survival signals from other cells. One of the major intracellular signaling pathways responsi...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2009 for the course BIO 315 taught by Professor Steiner during the Spring '08 term at Kentucky.

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