In contrast to unregulated necrosis these forms of

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Unformatted text preview: ced as a programmed response to stimuli such as infection or DNA damage, which also induce apoptosis. Under these conditions, regulated necrosis may provide an alternative pathway of cell death if apoptosis does not occur. For example, if apoptosis is inhibited, stimulation of the TNF receptor leads to cell death by necrosis. The importance of both autophagy and necrosis as alternatives to apoptosis remains to be fully explored, not only in normal cells but also in diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegeneration, which involve abnormalities of cell survival. Stem Cells and the Maintenance of Adult Tissues Early development is characterized by the rapid proliferation of embryonic cells, which then differentiate to form the specialized cells of adult tissues and organs. As cells differentiate, their rate of proliferation usually decreases, and most cells in adult animals are arrested in the G0 stage of the cell cycle. However, cells are lost either due to injury or programmed cell death throughout life. In o...
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