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Unformatted text preview: entiated cell that remains capable of proliferation. Proliferation of endothelial cells allows them to form new blood vessels as
needed for repair and regrowth of damaged tissue. Endothelial cell proliferation and the resulting formation of blood capillaries is triggered by a
growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF) produced by
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© 2009 Sinauer Associates, Inc. UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS
CELL DEATH AND CELL RENEWAL 15 FIGURE 17.14 Endothelial cells
Electron micrograph of a capillary. The
capillary is lined by a single endothelial
cell surrounded by a thin basal lamina.
(© Dr. Don W. Fawcett/Visuals
cell cells of the tissue that the new capillaries will invade. The production of
VEGF is in turn triggered by a lack of oxygen, so the result is a regulatory
system in which tissues that have a low oxygen supply resulting from
insufficient circulation stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and recruit
new capillaries (Figure 17.15). Smooth muscle cells, which form the walls of
larger blood vessels (e.g., arteries) as well...
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