The protein p53 then activates transcription of genes

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Unformatted text preview: g the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and Noxa, leading to cell death. This material cannot be copied, reproduced, manufactured, or disseminated in any form without express written permission from the publisher. © 2009 Sinauer Associates, Inc. UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS CELL DEATH AND CELL RENEWAL 11 Survival factor Receptor tyrosine kinase Plasma membrane PIP3 PIP2 Akt PDK1 P P P mTOR P mTORC2 PI 3-kinase mTORC1 Active Akt P P GSK-3 Bad FOXO p53 NF-kB Translational regulation Bim FIGURE 17.11 The PI 3-kinase pathway and cell survival Many growth factors that signal cell survival activate receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, leading to activation of PI 3-kinase, formation of PIP3, and activation of the protein kinase, Akt. Akt then phosphorylates a number of proteins that contribute to cell survival. Phosphorylation of the BH3-only protein Bad maintains it in an inactive state, as does phosphorylation of the FOXO transcription factors. In the absence of Akt signaling, activation of Bad promotes apoptosis and activ...
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