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These concerns may be alleviated by recent advances

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Unformatted text preview: tocyst Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Given both the technical and ethical difficulties in the derivation of embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a major advance in the field has come from studies demonstrating that adult somatic cells can be directly converted to pluripotent stem cells in culture. This circumvents the need for derivation of embryos and provides a direct mechanism for converting somatic cells to stem cells which, like embryonic stem cells, have the potential of developing into all tissues of an organism. The conversion (or reprogramming) of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells was first reported by Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka in 2006. They found that mouse fibroblasts could be reprogrammed to cells resembling embryonic stem cells (called induced pluripotent stem cells) by the action of only four transcription factors introduced by retroviral gene transfer ( Figure 17.27 ). Subsequent studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cells, like embryonic stem cells, are capable of differentiating into all cell types when introduced into...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2009 for the course BIO 315 taught by Professor Steiner during the Spring '08 term at Kentucky.

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