Cellular Interactions in Immune Response II

Cellular Interactions in Immune Response II - BIO/MI 494...

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BIO/MI 494 Fall 2008 Cellular Interactions in Immune Response I. Generation of effector T-cells 1. Overview 2. Effector functions of TH1 and TH2 cells II. Properties and functions of effector T-cells 1. Activation of effector T-cells 2. Costimulatory signal 3. Alterations in the expression of cell surface molecules on effector T-cells a. Similarities and differences between naïve T-cells and effector T-cells 4. Migration patterns of effector T-cells a. Activated endothelial at sites of infection b. Entry of effector T-cells in sites of infecton III. Generation of memory T-cells 1. Introduction 2. Characteristics of memory T-cells IV. TH1 and TH2 CD4 + T-cells 1. Introduction 2. Genesis of TH1 and TH2 T-cells 3. Function and characteristics of TH1 and TH2 T-cells a. Cytokines secreted by TH1 and TH2 T-cells b. Cells activated by TH1 and TH2 T-cells c. Cytokines influence differentiation of CD4 + T-cells into TH1 and TH2 T-cells d. TH1 and TH2 cells can regulate each other e. Nature and amount of antigenic peptide can affect differentiation of T-cells V. TH17 subset of CD4 T-cells 1. Neutrophil activation VI. Regulatory CD4 T-cells 1. Natural 2. Adoptive
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I N.,"' C~~I~ ! o 9 ! ;;; I ~AP9 I~ ? Naive CD8+ T cell Differentiation ~==>~~ ~(? OK ,,-IL-2R \'-o-~LCYtok,nes (e 9 , IL-2) G, _IL-2R ~ ~ ~~~c.IOr ~~ Tcell ~ - . Memory CD4+ T cell Activation of macrophages, B cells, other cells Killing of infected "target cells"; macrophage activation ====>~=> 5ftC;or CD8+T cell (CTL) t2, CD8+ Lymphoid organs Peripheral tissues Figure 8-2 Phases of T cell responses. Antigen recognition by T cells induces cytokine (e.g" IL-2) secretion, clonal expansion as a result of Il-2-induced autocrine cell proliferation, and differentiation of the T cells into effector cells or memory cells. In the effector phase of the response, the effector CD4' T cells respond to antigen by producing cytokines that have several actions, such as the activation of macrophages and B lympho- cytes, and CDB' CTLs respond by killing other cells. APC, antigen-presenting cell; CTL, cytolytic T lymphocyte.
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FIGURE 13-7 Effector functions of T H l cells. CD4' T cells that dif- ferentiate into TH1 cells secrete IFN- y. Iymphotoxin (LT) and TNF, and IL-2. IFN-y acts on macrophages to increase phagocytosis and killing of microbes in phagolysosomes and on B lymphocytes to stimulate pro- duction of IgG antibodies that opsonize microbes for phagocyto- sis. LT and TNF activate neutrophils and stimulate inflammation. IL-2 is the autocrine growth factor made by this subset of T cells (not shown). APC, antigen-presenting cell. FIGURE 13-13 Effector functions of T H 2 cells. CD4+< T cells that dif- ferentiate into T H 2 cells secrete IL-4 and IL-5. IL-4 acts on B cells to stim- ulate production of antibodies that bind to mast cells, such as IgE. IL-4 is also an autocrine growth and dif- ferentiation cytokine for TH2 cells.
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Cellular Interactions in Immune Response II - BIO/MI 494...

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