Infection and Immunity

Infection and Immunity - BIO/MI 494G INFECTION AND IMMUNITY...

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BIO/MI 494G INFECTION AND IMMUNITY Fall 2008 I. Types of pathogens 1. Bacteria a. intracellular b. extracellular 2. Viruses 3. Fungi 4. Parasites a. protozoan b. worms II. Innate and adaptive immunity 1. Introduction 2. Specificity of innate and adaptive immunity 3. Features of innate immune recognition 4. Course of a typical acute infection 5. Immune response to a typical infection a. ubiquitous responses of innate immunity b. induced responses of innate immunity c. adaptive response 6. Stages in infection and host defense III. Microbial invasion, pathogenicity and virulence 1. Compartments in the body where pathogens are found 2. Tissue damage induced by pathogens a. direct b. indirect IV. Components of the innate immune system 1. Barriers 2. Circulating effector cells 3. Circulating effector proteins 4. Cytokines and chemokines
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viruses herpesvlru~f.5 poxviruses adenovirus RNA viruses hepalitis Cvirus poliovirus rhinovirus measles virus Re.lr9viruses. human Immunodelicicncy virus (HIV) Gr:am-positive bacler~a streptococci staphylococci Lisleria clostridia Gram-negative bacteria salmonellae neisseriae Haemophilus Yersinia Other bac1eria mycobacteria Mycoplasma Chlamydia Fungi Candida Aspergillus mononucleosis, venereal disease smallpox respiratory disease hepatitis polio common cold measles aCQuired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pneumonia, scarlet fever, pharyngitis severe skin and wound infeclion lood poisoning gastro-inlestinal disease typhoid and food poisoning gonorrhea and meningitis pneumonia plague luberculosis, leprosy pneumonia blindness, slenlily mucosal or syslemic infeclions respiratory infections figure 3-1 Table of examples 01 microorganisms belonging to the major groups of pathogens Microorganisms are listed with the main type of disease they cause. double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) CpG-conlaining DNA (CpG DNA) Cell wall componenls lipopolysaccharide lipoleichoic acids peptidoglycan . IIageliin lipoprOlems mannose-, fucose-rich polysaccharides p-glucans Membrane properties exposed acidic phospholipids Biosynlhellc components N-formylated methionyl peptides viruses bacteria, fungi, viruses Gram-negative bacteria Gram-positive bacteria bacteria Gram-negative bacteria bacteria bacteria. fungi bacteria, tungi bacteria, fungi (apoplotic cells) bacleria Figure 3-2 Table of conserved components of microorganisms that are recognized by innate immune cells and molecules Figure 3-3 Features of bacterial cell walls that are recognized by components of innate immunity Innate immune recognition mechanisms focus on highly conserved features of groups of pathogens that are very hard for these organisms 10 change. Examples of diHerent targets of innate immunity are shown, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan, lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and porin. teichoic acid
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Infection and Immunity - BIO/MI 494G INFECTION AND IMMUNITY...

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