Infection and Immunity II

Infection and Immunity II - BIO/MI 494G Fall 2008 Infection...

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BIO/MI 494G Fall 200 8 Infection and Immunity I. Routes of infection 1. Introduction a. Mucosal surfaces b. External epithelia II. Ephithelial barriers against infection - first line of defense 1. Mechanical 2. Chemical and antimicrobial peptides 3. Microbiological 4. Innate-like lymphocytes III. Role of phagocytes (macrophage and neutrophil) in innate immunity 1. Introduction 2. Macrophages 3. Neutrophils 4. Function of macrophages and neutrophils IV. Inflamation 1. Definition 2. Role of inflammation in infection 3. Cardinal signs of inflammation a. Redness (rubor) b. Swelling (tumor) c. Heat (calor) d. Pain (dolor) 4. Cellular events in the inflammatory response a. Vasodilation b. Increased capillary permeability c. Phagocyte extravasation d. Clotting V. Recruitment of phagocytes of sites of infection 1. Rolling adhesion 2. Tight binding 3. Diapedesis 4. Migration 5. Role of chemokines VI. Kinetics of leukocyte binding to endothelium and infiltration into tissue 1. Endothelial adhesion molecule expression 2. Leukocyte infiltration
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Fig. 2.2 Pathogens infect the body through a variety of routes. Routes of Infection for pathogens Roule of entry Mode of transmission Pathogen Disease Mucosal surfaces Airway 1 Inhaled droplet I Influenza virus Neisseria meningitidis Influenza I MeningococcaJ meningitis I I Spores I Bacillus anthracis Inhala~on anthrax I Gastrointestinallract Contaminated water or food Salmonella typhi Rotavirus Typhoid fever Diarmea I I Reproductive tract Physical contact Treponema pallidum HIV I I Syphifls AIDS I I External ep~helia External surface 1 Physical contact II Trichophyton Athlete's fOOl 1 1 Minor skin abrasions I Bacillus anthracis Cutaneous anthrax 1 Wounds and abrasions 1 Puncture wounds I Clostridium tetan; Tetanus I I HaoolOg inleded animals I Francisella lularellSis Tularemia I Insect bites 1 Mosquito bites (Aedes aegypn) De'" lick bites I 1 Flavivirus Borrelia oorgdorferi Y"low fever Lyme disease I I Mosquito bites (Anopheles) I Plasmodium spp. Malaria I Fig. 2.4 Many barriers prevent Intrinsic epithelfal ~M~r~,to infection . pathogens from crossing epithelia and colonizing tissues. Surface epithelia provide mechanical, chemical, and microbiological barriers to infection. Mechanical Epithelial cells joine<1 by tight junctons Chemical Microbiological Longitudinal flow 01 air or fluid 'B'" ." '·.1,=1=LO=WP=H=ijl Fatty acids 'r;= , -I Enzymes (pepsin) I An~baclenal peptides Normal flora Movement 01 mucus by cilia Salivary enzymes (lysozyme)
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(a) cutaneous barrier Panelh celis Figure 3-6 Paneth cells in the small intestine Paneth cells are specialized cells that secrete (X-defensins at the bottom of the crypts formed by tile infolding of the epithelium of the small intestine. (b) mucosal barrier
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Infection and Immunity II - BIO/MI 494G Fall 2008 Infection...

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