412g Dr. Park-Sarge lecture notes-2 2009

412g Dr Park-Sarge - PGY412G Fall 2009 Endocrine Physiology O.K Park-Sarge Ph.D [email protected] Endocrine Physiology is a field of Physiology dealing

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PGY412G Fall 2009 Endocrine Physiology O.K. Park-Sarge, Ph.D., [email protected] Endocrine Physiology is a field of Physiology dealing with regulation of body functions by the ductless glands which synthesize and secrete hormones. Objectives I To identify characteristics of hormones & their action I. II. To understand energy balance and role of the pancreas III. To understand the hypothalamic-pituitary axis: feedback loop IV. To identify and understand secretion and function of primary hormones involved in maintaining homeostasis: - thyroid gland - adrenal cortex V. To understand events and hormones in the reproductive axis: sex differentiation, gametogenesisand sex steroid hormones Pictures/Figures/Statements are largely from Vander’s Human Physiology (McGraw-Hill), Berne et al’s Physiology (Mosby), Hinson et al’s The Endocrine System (Elsevier) ***You must know how each hormone is made, and what it does*** The endocrine system controls whole-body function via hormones that travel in blood and bind their respective receptors of target cells. Exchange epithelium Protective epithelium ciliated epithelium transporting epithelium Hormones from endocrine glands assist the body to: (a) maintain homeostasis , (b) adapt to changes in environment, (c) perform coordinated complex processes. e g reproduction e.g., reproduction, development etc. Hormones ______ initiate cellular processes.
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I. Overview and Hormones ; pp 315-358 Exocrine glands secrete chemicals into the lumen. Endocrine (ductless) glands secrete chemicals into the blood ******* Figure 11-1 blood H H H Plasma Plasma hormone levels reflect the Endocrine Cell Target Cell Metabolite Excretion Plasma hormone levels reflect the rate of secretion and also the rate of removal ( clearance ) due to excretion, metabolism, and binding to receptor. Q: At what concentration do hormones circulate in blood? Hormones One tissue may secrete multiple hormones. The same hormone may be secreted by multiple tissues. 1 0 endocrine glands’ main job is to secrete a hormone. They include neuroendocrine structures such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal medulla. Secondary endocrine glands’ main job is NOT hormone secretion. Table 11-1: acronyms for hormones can be found in this table.
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There are 3 major groups of Endocrine hormones: (a) peptides, (b) amino acid-derived, & (c) steroids, -- hormones bind receptor proteins!! (a) Peptide hormones , e.g., oxytocin, LH, FSH, ACTH, CRH, insulin • made through transcription and translation processes • chains of amino acids polar: hydrophilic : bind ____________ receptors _______ half-life in plasma. Peptide hormones are synthesized as pre - pro- hormones and transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER ). There, they become Figure 11-3 pro- hormones and are transported to the Golgi -apparatus. There, they are further processed to become hormones and packaged into secretory vesicles .
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2009 for the course PGY 412 taught by Professor Dr.sarge during the Fall '09 term at Kentucky.

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412g Dr Park-Sarge - PGY412G Fall 2009 Endocrine Physiology O.K Park-Sarge Ph.D [email protected] Endocrine Physiology is a field of Physiology dealing

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