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Unformatted text preview: "To be able to innovate, the enterprise needs to put--- every three years or so --- every single product, process, technology, market, distributive channel, and internal staff activity on trial for life."
~Peter F. Drucker
Copyright (c) 2007 by Donald F. Kuratko All rights reserved. E Section II Creating the Entrepreneurial Organization Copyright (c) 2007 by Donald F. Kuratko All rights reserved. E Section II Creating the Entrepreneurial Organization Section II explore major elements that must come together to create work environments that not only support, but actually encourage, entrepreneurial behavior from employees. Chapter Six: Human Resources in the Entrepreneurial Organization: The Creative Individual Chapter Seven: Human Resources and the Entrepreneurial Organization: The Organizational Perspective Chapter Eight: Corporate Strategy and Entrepreneurship Chapter Nine: Structuring the Company for Entrepreneurship Chapter Ten: Developing an Entrepreneurial Culture
Copyright (c) 2007 by Donald F. Kuratko All rights reserved. Chapter 6 Human Resources in the Entrepreneurial Organization: The Creative Individual
Copyright (c) 2007 by Donald F. Kuratko All rights reserved. E The Creative Individual in a Company The Arenas in Which People Are Creative at Work Idea Creativity Material Creativity Organization Creativity Relationship Creativity Event Creativity Inner Creativity Spontaneous Creativity E The Creative Individual in a Company Three components of successful creativity in organizations: Expertise Motivation Creative thinking skills E Creative Process The
Different Views of the Creative Process
(Van Oech) preparation frustration incubation illumination elaboration (Strickland & Carlson) exploring what you have and what you need inventing ideas while roaming beyond the obvious choosing the idea or combination that holds the most promise in terms of strengths and weaknesses implementing, trying, evaluating (Ray & Myers) information gathering digestion of material incubation or forgetting the problem inspiration implementation (Kuhn) problem recognition "naive" incubation/ gestation information search and preparation "knowledgeable"" incubation/gestation alternative solution formation alternative solution evaluation chosen solution implementation feedback and evaluation (Rickards) preparation incubation insight/ inspiration validation verification exploitation (Kao) interest preparation incubation illumination perceive all your alternatives entertain your intuitive guidance assess and select among your alternatives be realistic in your actions evaluate your results (Miller) be aware of your complete current situation be persistent In your vision E The Creative Process A five-stage approach encompasses the similarities across the seven previously listed views Preparation stage Frustration stage Incubation stage Illumination stage Elaboration stage E The Creative Blocks
"To err is wrong" "Play is frivolous" "That's not my area" "Don't be foolish" "I'm not creative" "The right answer" "That's not logical" "Be practical" "Follow the rules" "Avoid ambiguity" E The Creative Blocks These creative blocks originate from three sources in the realm of corporate entrepreneurship Employees impose the blocks on themselves based on their own perceptions Fellow employees impose them on their coworkers The workplace itself is a source of blocks Creativity Techniques and Creative Quality
CREATIVITY STAGE ACTIVITY Interest Preparation Incubation Illumination Elaboration/Verification Exploitation Environmental scanning COGNITIVE PROCESSES Intuition/emotion E Preparing the expedition Details/planning "Mulling things over" Intuition The "eureka" experience Intuition Market research Implement and compete Details/rationality Details/rationality Creativity Techniques and Creative Quality E Three standards to consider when judging one's creativity Overt benefit Reason to believe Dramatic difference The Entrepreneurial Personality
Common Traits and Characteristics Associated with the Entrepreneurial Individual
Drive to Achieve Internal Locus of Control Calculated Risk-taking Tolerance of Ambiguity Commitment/Perseverance/Determinatio n Independence Self-confidence & Optimism Tolerance for Failure Persistent Problem Solving Opportunity Orientation Integrity & Reliability High Energy Level Resourcefulness Creativity & Innovativeness Vision Team Building E Motivating Entrepreneurial Behavior E KEY; PC: Personal Characteristics of the Entrepreneur PG: Personal Goals of the Entrepreneur BE: Business Environment for the Entrepreneurial Idea IDEA: The Entrepreneurial Idea E Are Corporate Entrepreneurs Different? Corporate entrepreneurs: Not necessarily the inventors of new products, services, or processes Turn ideas or prototypes into profitable realities Drivers behind the implementation of innovative concepts Team builders Ordinary people who do extraordinary things Are Corporate Entrepreneurs Different?
Entrepreneurial action can be described best in terms of conceptualization and then implementation Conceptualization "dreaming" Implementation "doing" E Corporate entrepreneurs must be well skilled in both of these dimensions Are Corporate Entrepreneurs Different?
The Corporate Entrepreneurial Framework E Categories of Entrepreneurs
Characteristic Primary motives Time orientation Tendency to action Skills Traditional Manager Promotion, power Weekly annual planning Entrepreneur Freedom, selfmotivated 5- to 10-year growth guides Corporate Entrepreneur Freedom, corporate resources End goal of 3-15 years E Delegates action, Self-involved in all Self-involved but supervise/reporting facets tends to delegate Professional management Events inside corporation Cautious Intimate knowledge of business Technology and marketplace Likes moderate risk, expects to Very much like the entrepreneur Insiders and customers Sees little personal risk, not afraid of Focus of attention Attitude towards risk Categories of Entrepreneurs
Kao (1991) defines entrepreneurs in two categories: Creative or charismatic Conventional Miner (1996) concludes that four different types of entrepreneurs exist The Personal Achiever The Super-Salesperson The Real Manager The Expert Idea Generator E Critical Roles in Corporate Entrepreneurship
Individuals within a corporate entrepreneurship environment must take on one or more of these roles on a regular basis: Initiator *Sponsor/Facilitator *Champion Innovation Midwife Supporter Reactor E Critical Roles in Corporate Entrepreneurship
Fifteen key roles that must be filled by the champion E Researcher/analyzer Interpreter/strategist Visionary/inventory Catalyst or leader Endorser Team player Resource provider Problem solver Coordinator Negotiator Politician Change manager Missionary Opportunist Critic/judge Are You a Corporate Entrepreneur?
1.) Does your desire to make things work better occupy as much of your time as fulfilling your duty to maintain them the way they are? 2.) Do you get excited about what you are doing at work? 3.) Do you think about new business ideas while driving to work or taking a shower? 4.) Can you visualize concrete steps for action when you consider ways to make a new idea happen? 5.) Do you get in trouble from time to time for doing things that exceed your authority? 6.) Are you able to keep your ideas under cover, suppressing your urge to tell everyone about them until you have tested them and developed a plan for implementation? E EYou a Corporate Entrepreneur? Are
7.) Have you successfully pushed through bleak times when something you were working on looked as if it might fail? 8.) Do you have a network of friends at work that you can count on for help? 9.) Do you get easily annoyed by other's incompetent attempts to execute parts of your ideas? 10.) Can you consider trying to overcome a natural perfectionist tendency to do all the work yourself and share the responsibility for your ideas with a team? 11.) Would you be willing to give up some salary in exchange for the chance to try out your business idea if the rewards for success were adequate? ...
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- Spring '08