BKM_Sol_Ch_9 - Chapter 09 - Behavioral Finance and...

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Chapter 09 - Behavioral Finance and Technical Analysis Chapter 9 Behavioral Finance and Technical Analysis 1. i. Mental accounting is best illustrated by Statement #3. Sampson’s requirement that his income needs be met via interest income and stock dividends is an example of mental accounting. Mental accounting holds that investors segregate funds into mental accounts (e.g., dividends and capital gains), maintain a set of separate mental accounts, and do not combine outcomes; a loss in one account is treated separately from a loss in another account. Mental accounting leads to an investor preference for dividends over capital gains and to an inability or failure to consider total return. ii. Overconfidence (illusion of control) is best illustrated by Statement #6. Sampson’s desire to select investments that are inconsistent with his overall strategy indicates overconfidence. Overconfident individuals often exhibit risk-seeking behavior. People are also more confident in the validity of their conclusions than is justified by their success rate. Causes of overconfidence include the illusion of control, self-enhancement tendencies, insensitivity to predictive accuracy, and misconceptions of chance processes. iii. Reference dependence is best illustrated by Statement #5. Sampson’s desire to retain poor performing investments and to take quick profits on successful investments suggests reference dependence. Reference dependence holds that investment decisions are critically dependent on the decision-maker’s reference point. In this case, the reference point is the original purchase price. Alternatives are evaluated not in terms of final outcomes but rather in terms of gains and losses relative to this reference point. Thus, preferences are susceptible to manipulation simply by changing the reference point. 2. a. Frost's statement is an example of reference dependence. His inclination to sell the international investments once prices return to the original cost depends not only on the terminal wealth value, but also on where he is now, that is, his reference point. This reference point, which is below the original cost, has become a critical factor in Frost’s decision. In standard finance, alternatives are evaluated in terms of terminal wealth values or final outcomes, not in terms of gains and losses relative to some reference point such as original cost. 9-1
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Chapter 09 - Behavioral Finance and Technical Analysis b. Frost’s statement is an example of susceptibility to cognitive error, in at least two ways. First, he is displaying the behavioral flaw of overconfidence. He likely is more confident about the validity of his conclusion than is justified by his rate of success. He is very confident that the past performance of Country XYZ indicates future performance. Behavioral investors could, and often do, conclude that a five-year record is ample evidence to suggest future performance. Second, by choosing to invest in the securities of only Country
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BKM_Sol_Ch_9 - Chapter 09 - Behavioral Finance and...

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