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ENG 101-08 NOTES PROFESSOR: LEAH STEGMAN January 14, 2009 Rhetoric : The faculty (or ability) of discovering all the available means of persuasion in a given situation (to come up with ways of persuading someone to think a certain way). *States Ms. Stegman has lived in: Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, Nebraska, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Missouri, Indiana, Wisconsin, Maryland could be extra credit on the Final. January 16, 2009 Rhetoric, cont. Began about 4500 BC in ancient Greece. When Greece was at war, they would appoint a tyrant to be the leader. It was because it would be more efficient, quicker. Today, we think of “tyrant” with a negative connotation. Back then, it was just someone who had absolute power. The tyrant was supposed to give power back when the war ended. They made changes sometimes. Example: they would distribute land to people. This led to property disputes after the war. Rhetoric is not the formal logic of proving things. There is always going to be a counterargument about probabilistic – informal logic. Who are you persuading? What might the opposing positions be? How would you respond? Two ways to go about finding the best means of persuasion Audience: depending upon your audience, your argument could change. Purpose: why are you writing this? What are you trying to do? What are you trying to convince? Your argument would be different depending on the purpose. General principles originated with Aristotle’s Appeals Logos : Literally, means word. In this context, it means reason, logic, intellect. An appeal to reason will show exactly why it’s reasonable to pursue this course of action. Pathos : Literally, means emotions. An appeal to emotion will move people to act. Usually use vivid imagery so others an sympathize.
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Ethos : “morals,” has to do with morality, someone’s character. showing that you have sufficient knowledge prove that you have experience appeal to character (qualities as a person) or morality (do the right thing – example: don’t let the sick puppy die) or authority (what gives you the authority to talk about this) Five Cannons of Rhetoric (come from the ancient Greeks) NOTE: Cannon means the accepted principles which form a foundation for a discipline 1. Invention: coming up with content for your work, “discovery” 2. Arrangement: “organizing ideas.” How you are going to say what you are going to say. Example: an outline. 3. Style: diction choice, grammar, sentence structure, tone (how you say things on a local level). Deals with actual words and sentences 4. Memory – techniques for how to remember all the point you want to make. 5. Delivery- tone, volume of your voice, posture, etc. January 21, 2009
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2009 for the course ENG 101 taught by Professor Stegman during the Spring '09 term at Catholic University of America.

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