study guide 2

study guide 2 - Evolution of Management Division of Labor-...

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Evolution of Management Division of Labor— Adam Smith; narrow/repetitive tasks=huge productivity; industrial revolution -> large organizations have more complex mgmt Means-end inversion—following all the rules (means) becomes the end Hawthorne Studies—behavioral mgmt studies; lighting experiments at Western Electric indicate that changes (not amount of) light in workspace increases productivity because workers respond to attention; Bank Wiring Room shows that workers restrict their output to fair levels, outweighing control of mangament/incentives Enlargement— Job Characteristics Model—in response to Taylorism; by Hackman/Oldham -task variety – job requires various skills/activities/talents -task significance – job has impact on others -task identity – job leads to whole identifiable piece of work -autonomy – freedom in scheduling/performing the work -feedback – info received about job performance Efficiency vs. Effectivness— -efficiency: means – using few resources; doing things right; low waste -effective: ends – achieve goals; doing right things; high achievement -stable/simple: efficiency important -dynamic/complex: effectiveness important External Environment- general/specific external environment (see theory section below) -alignment w/ ext. envir needed to secure resource flow Environmental Uncertainty—degree of change/complexity in extern. envir. -dynamic (vs stable) – freq/unpred. change: technology (vs lighters) -complex (vs simple) – # of components in environment competitors, customers, info Relationships/Predictions Problems w/ Scientific Mgmt (film)— Prob w/ Bureaucracy -means-end inversion -Catch22: You have to be crazy to keep on flying - BUT if you are sane enough to ask not to fly, you must not be crazy. Relationship betw environmental uncer, efficiency, effectiveness Theory/Model/Perspective Taylor’s Scientific Model—study of relationships betw people/tasks to redesign work process for high efficiency; precise rules/methods; Franklin Motor Co goes from 5 to 45 cars per day -develop method for each part of work, replacing old rule-of-thumb method -select, train, teach, develop worker (instead of self-trained workers)
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-cooperate w/ workers to ensure that all work done according to principles -divide work/responsibility almost equally betw mgmt/workers -essentially to simplify jobs -critique: managers gained more control; monotonous jobs; more machines; incr production not necessarily leading to incr wages Weber’s Bureaucracy—focused on whole organization; strict div of labor, hierarchy, detailed rules, impersonality in operation Behavioral Mgmt Theories—motivate employees; gain employee commitment to organizational goals; led to study of leadership/teamwork Open Systems Model—organization takes in inputs and distributes outputs freely within environment -external environment: forces outside organization affecting performance (specific environment: customers, suppliers, competitors; general environment: economics/politics/sociocultural/technology)
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study guide 2 - Evolution of Management Division of Labor-...

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