Survey_Research_I - Survey Research I Scales Scaling...

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Unformatted text preview: Survey Research I Scales, Scaling, Instrument Construction and Organization Today Basics of survey research Major issues Format: How you collect survey data Threats to valid survey research Question wording and structure Dimensionality Format Format Questionnaire Group administration Mail surveys Household drop-off Online/Web Submission Format Interview Personal Telephone Observer Rating Method you use depends on population and substantive question Threats to survey Nature of population Can you contact the population? Accessible? Cooperative? Is the population capable of completing the survey? Language Literacy Adequate knowledge base Threats to survey Social desirability Respondent answers in a socially desirable way Non-response Interviewer bias Interviewer affects respondent Distortion Subversion Threats to survey Nature of Survey Questions types Personal Probing Controversial Complexity Length of questions Question format?? Questionnaire Construction Question Wording Type of Questions Question Placement Decisions About Question Wording What assumptions does the question make? If you ask what social class someone's in, you assume that they know what social class is and that they think of themselves as being in one. Evaluate assumptions made from in previous questions Decisions About Question Wording Potential Audience Educational Level Language Issues Cultural Sensitivity Previous Experience Decisions About Question Wording Can the question be misunderstood? Questions about `nationality' or `marital status' are too vague. Questions about `mass media' are too general. Example of poor question wording... What kind of headache remedy do you use? Want brand name? Want type? (Aspirin, pill, or capsule?) Decisions About Question Wording Is the time frame specified? Do you think Congress will cut taxes? Do you think Congress will successfully resist tax cuts on Medicare? Neither of these specifies a time frame. Decisions About Question Wording How personal is the wording? Are working conditions satisfactory or not satisfactory in the plant where you work? Do you feel that working conditions are satisfactory or not satisfactory in the plant where you work? Are you personally satisfied with working conditions in the plant where you work? Decisions About Question Wording Is the wording too direct? How did you feel about being in the war? - Probably too direct How well did the equipment hold up in the field? How well were new recruits trained? Decisions About Question Wording Some Additional Issues... Does question contain difficult or unclear terminology? Does the question make each alternative explicit? Is the wording objectionable? Is the wording loaded or slanted? Types of Questions Structured Questions Dichotomous = Two possible answers ____Yes ____No Male Female Structured Questions Nominal Number for response has no explicit value or meaning; it is just a place-holder Occupational Class: 1 = Truck driver 2 = Lawyer 3 = Professor 4 = Salesperson Structured Questions Ordinal The responses are rank ordered and there is a logical hierarchy Rank the following health care facilities in order of preference from best to worst... ___ General Hospital ___ ER ___ Ritenour ___ Centre Community Structured Questions Interval Type The responses are on a continuum with the intervals holding meaning in comparison to one another Likert Response Scale 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 neutral 4 agree 5 strongly agree Filter or Contingency Questions Have you ever smoked marijuana? yes no If yes, about how many times have you smoked marijuana? once 2 to 5 times 6 to 10 times 11 to 20 times more than 20 times Question Placement and Sequence The Opening Questions Should be easy to answer Should not be sensitive material Should get the respondent "rolling" Decisions About Placement 1. Is the answer influenced by prior questions? 2. Does question come too early or too late to arouse interest? 3. Does the question receive sufficient attention? Sensitive Questions Only after trust is developed Should make sense in that section of the survey (not "out of left field") Precede with warm-up questions A Checklist of Considerations Start with easy, nonthreatening questions. Put more difficult, threatening questions near end. Never start mail survey with an openended question. Put demographics at end (unless needed to screen). A Checklist of Considerations Avoid demographics at beginning. For historical demographics, follow chronological order. Ask about one topic at a time. When switching topics, use a transition. Reduce response set. For filter or contingency questions, make a flowchart. An Important Consideration Keep questionnaire as short as possible! ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2009 for the course BB H 310W taught by Professor Saltsman,brian during the Spring '07 term at Penn State.

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