Chapter01 - CS 111.002 Concepts of Computer Science Science...

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Unformatted text preview: CS 111.002 Concepts of Computer Science Science Spring 2008 MWF 2:00-2:50 PM Engineering Building 1033White Instructor: Bill Office: EB 3041 Phone: (618)650-3483 E-Mail: Office Hours: MWF 9AM1PM TR 9:30-10:30AM Chapter 0 Introduction Page 1 Page Tentative Syllabus Tentative First Quarter (1/14/08-2/08/08) • Data Representation & Hardware (Chapters 1-5) Second Quarter (2/11/08-3/07/08) • Algorithms & Programming (Chapters 6-9) Third Quarter (3/17/08-4/09/08) • Operating Systems & Applications (Chapters 1014) Fourth Quarter (4/11/08-4/30/08) • Networks & Ethical Considerations (Chapters 1517) Chapter 0 Introduction Page 2 Page Grading Grading Chapter 0 Introduction Page 3 Page Chapter 1: The Big Picture Chapter The Layers of a Computing The System System Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 4 Page History of Computer Science History The Abacus Originally developed by the Babylonians Originally around 2400 BC, this arithmetic calculating tool was also used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, and Chinese. Greeks, The Algorithm In the year 825, the Persian mathematician In Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī developed the concept of performing a series of steps in order to accomplish a task, such as the systematic application of arithmetic to algebra. arithmetic Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 5 Page History of Computer Science History The Analytical Engine Designed by British Designed mathematician Charles Babbage in the mid-19th century, this in steam-powered mechanical device (never successfully built) had the functionality of today’s modern computers. modern Binary Logic Also in the mid-1800’s, British Also mathematician George Boole developed a complete algebraic system that allowed computational processes to be mathematically modeled with zeros and ones (representing true/false, on/off, etc.). true/false, Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 6 Page History of Computer Science History Computability In the early 20th century, American mathematician Alonzo Church and British mathematician Alan Turing independently developed the thesis that a mathematical method is effective if it could be set out as a list of instructions able to be followed by a human clerk (a “computer”) with paper and pencil, for as long as necessary, and without ingenuity or insight. insight Turing Machine In 1936, Turing developed a In mathematical model for an extremely basic abstract symbol-manipulating device which, despite its simplicity, could be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer that could possibly be constructed. be Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 7 Page History of Computer Science History Digital Circuit Design In 1937, Claude Shannon, an American electrical In engineer, recognized that Boolean algebra could be used to arrange electromechanical relays, which were then used in telephone routing switches, to solve logic problems, the basic concept underlying all electronic digital computers. digital Cybernetics During World War II, During American mathematician Norbert Wiener experimented with antiexperimented aircraft systems that aircraft automatically interpreted radar images to detect enemy planes. This approach of developing artificial systems by examining real systems became known as Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 8 Page History of Computer Science History Transistor The fundamental building block of the circuitry in modern The electronic devices was developed in the early 1950s. Because of its fast response and accuracy, the transistor is used in a wide variety of digital and analog functions, including switching, amplification, voltage regulation, and signal modulation. amplification, Programming Languages In 1957, IBM released the Fortran programming language (the In IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System), designed to facilitate numerical computation and scientific computing. facilitate In 1958, a committee of European and American scientists In developed ALGOL, the Algorithmic Language, which pioneered the language design features that characterize most modern languages. languages. In 1959, under the supervision of the U.S. Department of In Defense, a consortium of technology companies (IBM, RCA, Sylvania, Honeywell, Burroughs, and Sperry-Rand) developed COBOL, the Common Business-Oriented Language, to help Chapter 1 The Big Picture develop business, financial, and administrative systems for Page 9 Page companies and governments. companies History of Computer Science History Operating Systems In 1964, IBM’s System 360 mainframe computers utilized In a single operating system (rather than using separate ad hoc systems for each machine) to schedule and manage the execution of different jobs on the computer. the Mouse In 1967, Stanford’s In Douglas Engelbart employed a wooden case and two metal wheels to invent his “X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System”. System”. Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 10 Page 10 History of Computer Science History Relational Databases In 1969, IBM’s Edgar Codd developed a table-based model for In organizing data in large systems so it could be easily accessed. organizing Computational Complexity In 1971, American computer scientist Stephen Cook pioneered In research into NP-completeness, the notion that some problems NP-completeness the may not be solvable on a computer in a “reasonable” amount of time. time. Supercomputers In 1976, Seymour Cray developed the first computer to In utilize multiple processors in order to vastly accelerate the computation of extremely complex scientific calculations. computation Personal Computers In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak formed In Apple Computer, Inc., facilitating the capability of purchasing a computer for home use. purchasing Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 11 Page 11 History of Computer Science History Internet In 1969, DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) In established ARPANET as a computer communication network that did not require dedicated lines between every pair of communicating terminals. require By 1977, ARPANET had grown from its initial four nodes in California and By Utah to over 100 nodes nationwide. Utah In 1988, the National Science Foundation established five supercomputer In centers and connected them via ARPANET in order to provide supercomputer access to academic researchers nationwide. supercomputer By 1995, private sector entities had begun to find it profitable to build and By expand the Internet’s infrastructure, so NSFNET was retired and the Internet backbone was officially privatized. backbone Chapter 1 The Big Picture Page 12 Page 12 History of Computer Science History Microsoft In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded the software company that would In ultimately achieve numerous milestones in the history of computer science: ultimately •1981: Contracted with IBM to produce DOS (Disk Operating System) for use 1981: in IBM’s new line of personal computers. in •1985: Introduced Microsoft Windows, providing PC users with a graphical 1985: user interface, which promoted ease of use in PCs. (Resulted in “look-anduser feel” lawsuit from Apple.) •1989: Released Microsoft Office, a suite of office productivity applications, 1989: including Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. (Accused of unfairly exploiting its knowledge of underlying operating systems by office suite competitors.) competitors.) •1995: Entered Web browser market with Internet Explorer. (Criticized for 1995: Chapter 1 The Big Picture security flaws and lack of compliance with many Web standards.) security Page 13 Page 13 ...
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