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14. Romanticism - Romanticism in Music 1825-1900...

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Unformatted text preview: Romanticism in Music 1825-1900 Romanticism in music was characterized by an emphasis on emotion and great freedom of form. It attained its fullest development in the works of German composers. Although elements of romanticism are present in the music of Beethoven, Weber, and Schubert, it reached its zenith in the works of Mendelssohn, Schumann, Chopin, Liszt, and Wagner. Placed in the middle period of romanticism are Brahms, Tchaikovsky, and Dvork. Characteristics of Romanticism The romantics explored a universe of feeling that included flamboyance and intimacy, unpredictability and melancholy rapture and longing. The romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of the classical time period. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature believe in the goodness of humanity the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator the development of nationalistic pride the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. In addition, romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Many romantic composers, including Mendelssohn, Schumann, Chopin, and Brahms, worked in small forms that are flexible in structure, e.g., prelude nocturne Ballad especially in solo music for the piano. Another romantic contribution was the art song for voice and piano. Tchaikovsky wrote, "There is not a bar which I have not truly felt and which is not an echo of my innermost feelings". Robert Schumann observed that "Chopin will soon be unable to write anything without people crying out at the seventh or eighth bar". Artists in all fields were intoxicated by the concept of a "union of the arts". Poets wanted their poetry to be musical, and musicians wanted their music to be poetic. During this time, Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein. Victor Hugo wrote The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1831. Program Music The nineteenth century was the great age of program music, instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene. The nonmusical element is usually specified by a title or by comments called a program. Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet, (Program Music) An orchestral work inspired by Shakespeare's play Agitated music depicts the feud between the rival families A tender melody conveys young love A funeral-march rhythm suggests the lovers' tragic fate. The Art Song One of the most distinctive forms in romantic music is the art song. This is a composition for solo voice and piano. ...
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