Unformatted text preview: VERBAL MESSAGES
Chapter 7 DeVito, The Interpersonal Communication Book. 10th Ed. Allyn and Bacon, 2004. Today's Topics Why Do We Communicate via Verbal Messages? How Do We Understand Verbal Messages? How Does Language Confirm or Disconfirm - Gender? How Does Using Verbal Messages that are Male Generic Exclude Women? How Do Verbal Messages Define Men & Women Differently? How Do Verbal Messages Reinforce Cultural Stereotypes? How Do Verbal Messages Evaluate Gender? Do Men and Women Differ in their Use of Verbal Messages? Why Do We Communicate Via Verbal Messages? Conquer the Silent and Unknown Express and Control Emotion Reveal or Camouflage Thoughts and Motives Why Do We Communicate Via Verbal Messages? (cont.) Permits us to make and avoid contact with others Asserts identity (both individual and social) Give or seek information (uncertainty reduction) How Do We Understand Verbal Messages? Semantic meaning of letters as words Denotative meaning Connotative meaning She burnt the candle at both ends or That's the way the cookie crumbles. Syntactic word order makes meaning Pragmatic understanding language in its actual use But BEWARE... If we are actively engaged in choosing/using words that construct our realities, then we have choices in how we see the world. However, we can also prevent certain viewpoints from "being heard" through our use of language. For this purpose, DeVito highlights ways in which language has been used that prevent effective interpersonal communication. Language can Confirm and Disconfirm - Gender Male Generic Language Excludes Women Businessmen, Chairmen, Mankind By assuming He as the "Generic" or Norm Sexism uses terms that presume maleness is the norm Language Defines Men & Women Differently "Spotlighting" Highlighting the sex of the Person when talking about occupations She's an outstanding female doctor He plans to be a male nurse He's a male stay-at-home parent Language Defines Men & Women Differently (cont.) Language Reinforces Cultural Stereotypes Stereotyping - "A set of beliefs about the
probable behavior of members of a group" Develop expectations - How will this person act? Women Passive, Men Active Women Defined by Appearance or Relationships Miss or Mrs. Designates Marital Status Prevalent Tradition is that a Wife Adopts Husband's Name Men Defined by Activities, Accomplishments or Positions Language Reinforces Stereotypes
IMPRESSIONS FROM AN OFFICE
HE's getting married: He'll get more settled. HIS desk is cluttered: He's obviously a hard worker. HE's not at his desk: He must be at a meeting. HE is talking with his coworkers: He must be discussing the latest deal. Josefowitz, 1980; 1990 Language Reinforces Stereotypes
IMPRESSIONS FROM AN OFFICE
SHE's getting married: She'll get pregnant and leave. HER desk is cluttered: She's obviously a disorganized scatterbrain. SHE's not at her desk: She must be in the ladies' room. SHE is talking with his coworkers: She must be gossiping.
Josefowitz, 1980; 1990 Language Evaluates Gender Women Often Trivialized by Language Child: Baby Doll, Girlie Food: Sugar, Cookie, Cupcake, Honey Animal: Chick, Bitch Differences in Women's and Men's Verbal Communication Styles?
Indicate whether you think the statement describes women's speech (W), men's speech (M), or women's and men's speech equally (=)
1. 2. 3. 4. This speech is logical rather than emotional. This speech is less concise and jumps from one idea to another. This speech is generally more effective. This speech is more polite and uses fewer swear words. Microsoft Image Differences in Women's and Men's Verbal Communication Styles?
1. This speech uses more tag questions (tag questions are at the end of statements that ask for agreement "Let's meet at ten o'clock, OK? This speech is less forceful and less in control. 2. Microsoft Image Differences in Women's and Men's Verbal Communication Styles?
For which questions did you report the statement described women's speech (W)? For which questions did you report the statement described men's speech (M)? For which questions did you report the statement described women's & men's speech equally (=)?
Kramarae (1974a, 1974b, 1977, 1981) - No differences except for statement 4. Actual stereotypes of women's and men's speech not confirmed. Microsoft Image Differences in Women's and Men's Verbal Communication Styles? Feminine Speech Centers on Relationships Used to Equalize Status Supports Others Conversational Maintenance Invites and Includes Others Verbally Responsive to Others Tentativeness
Wood, 1984; 1994; 1997; 1998; 1999; 2001; 2003; 2005; 2007 Microsoft Image Women's Communication May Be Tentative Hedges: "I kind of feel" Qualifiers: "I'm probably not the best judge..." Tag questions: ". . .don't you think?" Is this Powerless? or Inclusive? Differences in Women's and Men's Verbal Communication Styles (cont.)? Masculine Speech Used to Establish & Maintain Status and Control Used to Accomplish Tasks Stated in Fairly Direct, Assertive Ways Less Emotionally Responsive to Others
Wood, 1984; 1994; 1997; 1998; 1999; 2001; 2003; 2005; 2007 Differences in Women's and Men's Verbal Communication Styles (cont.)? WHAT DO YOU THINK? Microsoft Image Are you basing your opinion on actual experiences with the speech of women and men? Are you basing your opinion on popular beliefs (or myths) about women's and men's speech? ...
View Full Document
- Spring '09
- Philosophy of language, Connotation