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Unformatted text preview: NONVERBAL MESSAGES
Ch. 8 DeVito, The Interpersonal Communication Book. 10th Ed. Allyn and Bacon, 2004. Today's Topics
What does Nonverbal Communication Accomplish? Body Communication
Kinesics & Body Appearance Eye Communication
Eye Contact, Eye Avoidance & Pupil Dilation Spatial Messages
Proxemic Distances, Theories about Space & Territoriality Temporal Communication
Social Clock What is Nonverbal Communication? Spontaneous
Represents our internal emotions and are not planned or intentional messages. Symbolic
Symbols allow us to create meaning. Powerful
Frequently are seen as more trusted than verbal. More emotionally powerful. While influenced by culture, they are expressive of universal meaning. Clustered. Body Communication - Body Gestures Modify Verbal Messages Emblems substitute for verbal b/c have direct translation Illustrators actively describe verbal messages or focus our attention on specific words or phrases Affect Displays facial expressions that convey emotions that can be unintentional or intentional Regulators monitor, maintain or control the flow of talk Adapters unintentional movements that satisfy a need Self-Adaptors usually satisfy a physical need Alter-Adaptors body movements you make in response to current interactions Object-Adaptors body movements that include manipulation of an object Body Communication - Body Appearance Form Assessments of Others through Body Appearance Height and Weight Physical Attractiveness also called "The Beauty Premium" (Olson & Marchuetz, 2005) Sexual advantages Treated as if more intelligent Treated as if more socially skilled Less deserving of punishment Eye Communication:
Eye Contact Eye Contact Accomplishes Five Functions
Monitors Feedback Secures the Attention and Interest of Listener(s) Regulates or Controls the Conversation Signals the Nature of the Relationship Visual Dominance Compensates for Physical Distance Eye Communication:
Eye Avoidance Pupil Dilation Eye Avoidance
Goffman's (1967) Civil Inattention allow others to maintain their privacy by not looking at them Pupil Dilation
Communicates interest in someone/something We are judged as more attractive based on pupil size, probably because people think we are interested in them! Spatial Messages Proxemic Distances & Territoriality Proxemic Distances Hall (1959, 1963, 1966)
Intimate Distance 0 to 18 inches Personal Distance 18 inches to 4 ft "personal bubble" Social Distance 4ft to 12 ft see this in social & business situations Public Distance 12 ft to more than 25 ft Proxemic distances depend on certain factors:
Gender Women versus men Age Maintain closer distances with those of similar ages Personality Extroverts vs Introverts Spatial Messages:
Proxemic Distances & Territoriality Theories about Space Protection Theory we establish zones around ourselves when we feel threatened Equilibrium Theory intimacy and physical distance co-vary so that when we intimacy, we the physical distance. What happens when we are forced to be close together with strangers? Spatial Messages:
Proxemic Distances & Territoriality Theories about Space (cont.)
Expectancy Violations Theory "expected distance" determined by culture and individual preferences. But, have general unspoken rules. What happens when we violate these expectations and get too close to someone? Spatial Messages:
Proxemic Distances & Territoriality
As crowding increases , people's personal space requirement decreases . At a fair, carnival, sports event, parade or concert, people's need for personal space and privacy is reduced. In most of these situations, people are having fun so they are more likely to be relaxed. Spatial Messages:
Proxemic Distances & Territoriality Territoriality We use territory to communicate status Primary Territories areas that we call our own.
Where the concept "home field advantage" comes from Secondary Territories we don't belong to them, but
we've occupied them & associate ourselves w/ them. Public Territories areas that are open to all even
though they might be owned by a few. Markers give us a feeling of belonging
Central markers when we want to reserve a space Boundary markers divide your territory from others Spatial Messages:
Proxemic Distances & Territoriality Temporal Communication:
Psychological Time Social Clock (Neugarten, 1979) culture's schedule for the "right time" to do certain things. At what age, do you expect to get married? To buy your first home? To have your first child? Nonverbal Communication Enables Us To: Modify Verbal Messages (Kinesics) Form Assessments of Others (Body Appearance) Monitor Feedback (Eye Contact) Secure Attention & Interest of Listeners (Eye Contact) Regulate/Control Conversation (Eye Contact, Regulators) Signal the Type of Relationship (Eye Contact, Proxemics) Compensate for Physical Distance (Eye Contact) Allow others to Maintain their Privacy (Eye Avoidance) Communicate Interest (Pupil Dilation) Recognize Danger & Threats (Protection Theory) Communicate Status (Territoriality, Proxemics) Feel like We Belong (Markers, Proxemics) Know When to Do Certain Things (Social Clock) ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2009 for the course SPC 103 taught by Professor Hayes,d during the Spring '09 term at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.
- Spring '09