CJ Exam 3 Notes - 1 Innovations in Policing a Community Policing i Community Oriented Policing 1 During the early 1990s the U.S Department of

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1. Innovations in Policing a. Community Policing i. Community Oriented Policing 1. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Justice launched the COPS program - Community Oriented Policing Services 2. It was designed to orient law enforcement toward crime prevention. .. ii. Elements of COP 1. Organizationally decentralized 2. Decentralized decision making 3. Proactive, problem solving focus 4. Fixed geographic accountability 5. Public involvement and community partnerships 6. Crime prevention orientation iii. On paper, community or problem solving policies makes sense. But, what do we know about the effectiveness or impact? iv. Some Evidence 1. Better Intelligence in some instances 2. More effective use of some law enforcement resources a. Referrals to other agencies etc. 3. Better PR in some cases 4. Some evidence of local reduction in fear of crime v. There is no evidence that Community Policing has effected crime vi. Challenged to Community Policing 1. Cultural resistance within agencies 2. Lack of trust on the part of citizens
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3. Competing demands on law enforcement 4. Lack of adequate resources 5. Bowling Alone a. National trend analysis i. Statistics indicate a decline in civic participation of individuals in this country 2. Broken Windows policing a. 1982 Wilson and Kelling “Broken Windows” b. Condition of the environment and behavioral incivilities impact perceived risk of crime for both offenders and potential victims c. Offenders perceive lower risk since no one cares or is watching d. Potential victims retreat, informal social control is reduced, resulting in offenders taking over the area e. Economic impact on commerce and land value f. Most debated element is the claim that broken windows will lead to more serious crime g. NYC effort led by Bratton (Giuliani took credit) was first major B-W initiative. i. Began in subway in 1990 (turnstile jumping, graffiti, aggressive panhandling) ii. Moved up to Times Square in 1993 and other blighted areas in Midtown iii. Based on aggressive order maintenance and arrest policies h. Evidence indicates that arrests for public order crimes increased by over 200% in the first year in the catchment area (Midtown). It was also reported that homicides dropped 17%, burglary and larceny were down 11%, MVT was down 15% in Midtown. i. BY 1995, B-W policing was taking hold across the country.
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j. COP and Broken Windows are a slice of a larger effort of focusing on criminogenic places. Not just the maintenance of the environment but land use and environmental design as well. i. The Built Environment (street networks, public spaces) ii. Liquor stores and bars iii. Sex shops iv. Topless bars v. Parking lots vi. Apartment complexes vii. Etc. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2009 for the course SOC 325L taught by Professor Kelly during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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CJ Exam 3 Notes - 1 Innovations in Policing a Community Policing i Community Oriented Policing 1 During the early 1990s the U.S Department of

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