Lecture 11 - EXPERIENCES: United States • Private...

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Unformatted text preview: EXPERIENCES: United States • Private investment increased • Little effect on seed prices adj. for productivity • Investment varies widely by crop: • maize and soybeans high • ornamentals • others very minor PVP applications by year 500 450 No. of Applications 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Year number by year 1995 2000 2005 UP and PVP Applications on Field Corn 120 100 80 60 40 Year Field corn PVP Field corn UP 01 99 97 95 93 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 77 75 0 73 20 71 No . o f Ap p lic a tio n s 140 Applications for UP and PVP on Soybean 140 100 80 60 40 20 Year Soybean PVP Soybean UP 01 9 9 97 95 93 91 89 87 8 5 83 81 79 77 7 5 7 3 0 7 1 No. of Applications 120 Impact on Private Sector Breeder Numbers Breeder (excluding corn) 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1994 36 49 58 79 97 796 IMAPCT on QUALITY IMAPCT Examined wheat in Washington State Public and private breeders, winter and spring wheats Public (HRW + SWS) PVP and unprotected, private (SWS) largely PVP Used data from public variety trials Variety yield/reference yield Combined performance of winter wheat varieties in Wisconsin. (2007-2008) 2008 Means Yield Test Janesville Height Public Hopewell Public Kaskaskia Public Truman (1) Public Sunburst IL 01-11934 Public - exp IL 02-23168 Public - exp OH 02-7217 Public - exp Public - exp VA 03W-409 AR 97044-10-2 Agripro Coker Branson Agripro Coker Cooper Agripro Coker W 1377 Diener D 493 W Diener D 495 W Diener Diener Diener Mildew(2) Entry D 502 W D 511 W XW 70 Test 65 72 69 *81 *83 *79 69 74 71 *83 *81 77 69 78 *82 73 *81 lb/bu in (0-9) % 55.2 34 0 8 58.5 37 2 47 56.9 32 1 35 59.7 31 0 0 58.1 33 1 3 58.7 34 3 20 56.2 36 0 4 55.4 56.5 29 36 0 1 2 38 56.4 33 1 1 56.7 33 0 14 58.8 36 2 30 54.0 35 1 29 58.2 33 2 12 55.8 55.8 58.4 37 32 34 2 1 1 18 10 10 bu/a 65 85 69 77 88 77 66 73 71 80 74 72 57 80 81 67 82 54.8 58.7 56.2 59.2 57.3 57.9 55.6 54.7 55.9 55.7 56.0 57.5 50.9 58.0 55.1 55.0 58.2 bu/a 54 63 55 69 70 68 63 65 60 70 *75 65 60 69 65 70 67 2-Year Test Wt. Yield lb/bu Chilton Test Wt. Yield bu/a Public - exp Powdery ing Wt. Brand Lodg- Lancaster Wt. Yield lb/bu 52.2 56.9 54.5 57.1 56.7 57.4 54.0 53.2 54.5 54.9 54.6 57.5 52.6 56.4 53.2 53.4 56.9 Mean bu/a 76 69 84 *96 92 92 77 85 82 *98 95 94 90 84 *100 82 93 Yield lb/bu 58.5 60.0 59.9 bu/a 71 75 78 62.7 60.1 60.7 59.2 58.5 59.1 58.6 82 59.5 61.5 58.4 75 60.3 59.0 59.0 60.0 80 HYPOTYHESIES & RESULTS HYPOTYHESIES H1: Private yield higher H2: PVP public yield higher H1:strong hypothesis H2: medium for HRW (selectively protected) H3: weak for SWS (routinely protected) OTHER COUNTRIES • LATIN AMERICA: – Argentina - no effect until enforceable – Brazil - licensing soybeans to Monsanto – Chile - access to North American fruits Kenya-ornamentals South Africa - large farms, cotton China – recent 90 others pending UPOV REPORT on the IMPACT of PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION • Increased #s new varieties • Protect only productive varieties • Enhance access to foreign varieties • Not applicable system if there is no commercial market for seed • Plant Variety protection (PVP) the UPOV Conventions UPOV is a French acronym for the International Convention for the protection of New Varieties of Plants ­ ­ [technically, PVP is a form of sui generis protection means special purpose • UPOV is relatively recent 1961 compared to patents which go back to the 1500s UPOV – International Harmonization Harmonization IP law national – requires protection in each country where needed Some multi­national agreements do exist Problem for inventor if systems completely different from country to country UPOV establishes ‘model laws’, benefits to membership UPOV 1961, 1972, 1978, 1991 Acts Adopt as national law • How an international convention works: A. Convention establishes a basic text B. Countries adopt national law in line with the Convention C. Country applies for membership handled like a treaty • NOTE: it is possible to have a PVP law and not be a member of UPOV What might the benefits of membership be? • Duration of protection 1991 Act? What rights are granted to breeders? Prevent unauthorized sales imports, exports, multiplication and storage for the purpose of sales, etc. of propagating material Can prohibit imports of parts of protected plants, and (national option) products of parts) • What rights are not granted? May use seed in a breeding program (breeders’ exemption) Farmers may save the harvest as a seed source on their land only (farmers’ privilege) [national option most are selecting] • protection requirements: novel (new) distinct stable homogenous ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2009 for the course AEM 3350 taught by Professor Lesser,w. during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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