Lecture 21 - What is"biosafety ENVIRONMENTAL effects of GM crops Also refers to HUMAN and ANIMAL HEALTH EFECTS How Are Conventional Foods Regulated

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What is “biosafety” ? ENVIRONMENTAL effects of GM crops Also refers to HUMAN and ANIMAL HEALTH EFECTS
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How Are Conventional Foods Regulated? Generally Recognized as Safe ( GRAS ) Valid??
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ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY STAGES : Full confinement progressively to full release
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The Early History of Biotech Regulation Scientists called for regulations (1975) First regulations focused on laboratory use (1976-1980) (full containment – NIH lab procedures) Attention then shifted to field use (1983 onwards) Contained, then full release With the introduction of GM into commerce, attention shifted once again on trade (1992 onwards)
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OECD Technical Work Provide common technical guidelines 1986: “Recombinant DNA safety considerations” http://www.oecd.org/pdf/M00032000/M00032689.pdf Additional guidance documents: Scale up of crop plants, Food Safety Evaluation (1996) The Consensus Document series Represent officially endorsed consensus on safety assessment aspects of a wide range of subjects: crops, traits, detection and analytical methods, etc… Scientists called for regulations (1975) First regulations focused on laboratory use (1976-1980) (full containment – NIH lab procedures) Attention then shifted to field use (1983 onwards) Contained, then full release With the introduction of GM into commerce, attention shifted once again on trade (1992 onwards)
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Major Environmental Issues Super weeds Gene Transfer/contamination Biodiversity (natural env.) Wild relatives Non-target crops ( organics ) Skills/Knowledge needs ( pollen transfer )
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National Developments Australia European Union United States All have based their regulatory systems on the OECD technical guidelines They have put in place very different institutional arrangements to implement regulations The result on biotech in their territory is very different!
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USA: Fully Developed System in Place US uses government powers under existing general legislation for agriculture, environment and food safety REGULATE ‘PRODUCT, NOT PROCESS’ Responsible Department/Agency US Department of Agriculture (Animal Plant Health Inspection Service)
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2009 for the course AEM 3350 taught by Professor Lesser,w. during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lecture 21 - What is"biosafety ENVIRONMENTAL effects of GM crops Also refers to HUMAN and ANIMAL HEALTH EFECTS How Are Conventional Foods Regulated

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