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geog332 review - Globalization Processes o Decreasing costs...

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Globalization Processes o Decreasing costs, hassle, time of transportation and communication o Increasing range, frequency, and types of spatial interactions o Leading to spatial, economic, institutional, political, & social restructuring o Restructuring in turn may feed back to affect infrastructure, costs, hassle o Important role of technological advances (speed, fuels, containers, internet) ------------------------------------------ Locational Rent von Thünen’s Simplifying Assumptions (1783-1850, von Thünen owned an agricultural estate in rural Germany for 40 years) 1. An ‘isolated state’ (no links with the rest of the world) with one city at the centre of an agricultural area. 2. The city is the sole market for the surplus production from the agricultural area, and the agricultural area is the sole supplier to the city. At the city all fanners receive the same price for a particular crop at anyone time . 3. This agricultural area is a uniform plain over which soil fertility, climate, and other physical factors do not vary. There are no physical barriers to movement across the plain. 4. All farmers act as economic [agents]; this means that they aim to maximize their profits and have full knowledge of the needs of the market. 5. There is only one form of transport (in those days, horse and cart). 6. The cost of this transport is directly proportional to distance. Bradford and Kent Human Geography: Theories and Their Applications (1977, page 34) ------------------------------- von Thünen’s Equation for Locational Rent Location Rent (LR) = Ym - Yc - Ytd = Y(m - c - td) = Revenue – Production Costs – Transportation Costs where: LR = locational rent per unit of land Y = yield (in commodity units) per unit of land m = market price per unit of commodity c = production cost per unit of commodity t = transport cost per unit of commodity per mile d = distance from the market For example, a commodity unit might be a bushel, or a ton, or per gallon. ------------------------------------ Central Place Theory Central Places in Southern Germany Christaller’s Assumptions I 1. There is an unbounded uniform plain on which there is equal ease of transport in
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all directions. Transport costs are proportional to distance and there is only one type of transport. 2. Population is evenly distributed over the plain. 3. Central places (settlements) are located on the plain to provide goods, services, and administrative functions to their hinterlands. Examples of these are hardware shops (goods), dry cleaners (services), and town planning departments (administrative).
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