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Chapter 2 part A stud_ver

# Chapter 2 part A stud_ver - Chapter 2 Part A Data...

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3.1 Chapter 2 Part A Data Communications Fundamentals

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3.2 To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals. Note
3.3 3-1 ANALOG AND DIGITAL 3-1 ANALOG AND DIGITAL Data can be Data can be analog analog or or digital digital . The term . The term analog data analog data refers refers to information that is continuous; to information that is continuous; digital data digital data refers to refers to information that has discrete states. Analog data take on information that has discrete states. Analog data take on continuous values. Digital data take on discrete values. continuous values. Digital data take on discrete values.

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3.4 Note Data can be analog or digital. Analog data are continuous and take continuous values. Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values.
3.5 Signals can be analog or digital. Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range; digital signals can have only a limited number of values. Note

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3.6 Figure 3.1 Comparison of analog and digital signals
3.7 In data communications, we commonly use periodic analog signals and nonperiodic digital signals. Note

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3.8 3-2 PERIODIC ANALOG SIGNALS 3-2 PERIODIC ANALOG SIGNALS Periodic analog signals can be classified as Periodic analog signals can be classified as simple simple or or composite composite . A simple periodic analog signal, a . A simple periodic analog signal, a sine wave sine wave , , cannot be decomposed into simpler signals. A composite cannot be decomposed into simpler signals. A composite periodic analog signal is composed of multiple sine periodic analog signal is composed of multiple sine waves. waves.
3.9 Figure 3.2 A sine wave

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3.10 The power in your house can be represented by a sine wave with a peak amplitude of 155 to 170 V. However, it is common knowledge that the voltage of the power in U.S. homes is 110 to 120 V. This discrepancy is due to the fact that these are root mean square (rms) values. The signal is squared and then the average amplitude is calculated. The peak value is equal to 2 ½ × rms value. Example 3.1
3.11 Figure 3.3 Two signals with the same phase and frequency, but different amplitudes

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3.12 The voltage of a battery is a constant; this constant value can be considered a sine wave, as we will see later. For example, the peak value of an AA battery is normally 1.5 V . Example 3.2
3.13 Frequency and period are the inverse of each other. Note

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3.14 Figure 3.4 Two signals with the same amplitude and phase, but different frequencies
3.15 Table 3.1 Units of period and frequency

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3.16 The power we use at home has a frequency of 60 Hz . The period of this sine wave can be determined as follows: Solve by yourself. Answer will be given during lecture class. Example 3.3
3.17 Express a period of 100 ms in microseconds. Example 3.4 Solution From Table 3.1 we find the equivalents of 1 ms (1 ms is 10 −3 s) and 1 s (1 s is 10 6 μs). We make the following substitutions:.

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3.18 The period of a signal is 100 ms. What is its frequency in kilohertz?
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Chapter 2 part A stud_ver - Chapter 2 Part A Data...

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